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Nanotechnology - Global Strategies, Industry Trends and Applications

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Nanotechnology - Global Strategies, Industry Trends and Applications. In April 2000, the Japanese government established the National Strategy forIndustrial Technology in order to identify challenges and solutions for Japaneseindustrial technology in the twenty-first century. The Second Science and TechnologyBasic Plan, a five year plan that started in 2001, is a part of this nationalstrategy. According to this plan, a total of approximately $200 billion will beinvested in governmental research and development. One of the most significantpolicies of concern is the prioritization of research and development based onpressing national and social issues in areas such as life science, IT, environment,and nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Nanotechnology is expected to be a....

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Nanotechnology Global Strategies, Industry Trends and Applications Edited by Jurgen Schulte Asia Pacific Nanotechnology Forum Nanotechnology Nanotechnology Global Strategies, Industry Trends and Applications Edited by Jurgen Schulte Asia Pacific Nanotechnology Forum Copyright # 2005John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England Telephone(+44) 1243 779777 Email (for orders and customer service enquiries): cs-books@wiley.co.uk Visit our Home Page on www.wiley.com All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except under the terms of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T4LP, UK, without the permission in writing of the Publisher. Requests to the Publisher should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England, or emailed to permreq@wiley.co.uk, or faxed to (+44) 1243 770620. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Other Wiley Editorial Of“ces John Wiley & Sons Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA Jossey-Bass, 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741, USA Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Boschstr. 12, D-69469 Weinheim, Germany John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, 33 Park Road, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2 Clementi Loop #02-01, Jin Xing Distripark, Singapore 129809 John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada M9W 1L1 Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nanotechnology: global strategies, industry trends & applications/edited by Jurgen Schulte. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-470-85400-6 (cloth : alk. paper) 1.Nanotechnology. I. Schulte, Jurgen. T174.7.N3738 2005 0.5–dc22 620 2004023729 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Acatalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0-470-85400-6 (HB) Typeset in 10/12pt Times Roman by Thomson Press (India) Limited, New Delhi Printed and bound in Great Britain by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestry in which at least two trees are planted for each one used for paper production. Contents List of Contributors xi Foreword xiii Hiroyuki Yoshikawa Introduction: Movements in Nanotechnology1 Jurgen Schulte Part One: National Nanotechnology Initiatives in Asia, Europe and the US 5 1 Scientific Development and Industrial Application of Nanotechnology in China 7 Hongchen Gu and Jurgen Schulte 1.1Policy and Objective of Nanotechnology Development in China7 1.1.1General Strategy 8 1.1.2Research Objectives within the Tenth Five-Year Plan8 1.2Application of Nanotechnology9 1.2.1Materials Processing 9 1.2.2Nanochip Fabrication and Integration9 1.2.3Nanochip Processing Methods9 1.3Analysis and Characterization of Structure and Function9 1.3.1National Safety 9 1.3.2Technology Transfer and Applications of Nanomaterials and Nanochips 10 1.3.3Building Basic Nanotechnology Centres and an R&D Base11 1.4Main Policy and Measures 11 1.4.1Enhance Leadership and Coordination of Nanotechnology R&D 11 1.4.2Implementation of National Nanotechnology Initiatives12 1.4.3Encourage All Participants and Create Environmentally Beneficial Nanotechnology 12 vi Contents 1.4.4Foster Scientific Specialists and Technologists in Nanotechnology 12 1.5Status of Nanotechnology Research in China13 1.6Distribution of Research Potential13 1.6.1Geographic Distribution 13 1.6.2Human Resources Distribution14 1.6.3Personnel Structure 14 1.7Important Groups and Main Achievements15 1.7.1Research Fields 15 1.7.2Key Achievements in Nanotechnology15 1.7.3Key Institutions in Nanotechnology16 1.7.4Sources of Nanotechnology Funding16 1.7.5Related Governmental Organizations18 1.8Status of Private Nanotechnology Companies in China18 1.8.1Geographic Distribution 18 1.8.2Statistics on Nanotechnology Companies19 1.9Industry Focus and Product Variety21 1.9.1Industry Focus and Product Maturity21 1.9.2Variety and Application of Nanoproducts21 1.10 Funding and Profit Output 22 2 Current Status of Nanotechnology in Korea and Research into Carbon Nanotubes 25 Jo-Won Lee and Wonbong Choi 2.1Introduction 25 2.2Current Status of Nanotechnology in Korea26 2.3Carbon Nanotube Research in Korea32 2.3.1Background of CNT Research 32 2.3.2CNT Field-Effect Transistor 34 2.3.3Selective Growth of CNT 34 2.3.4Bandgap Engineering 36 2.3.5CNT Memory 37 2.3.6CNT Field Emission Display 42 Acknowledgement 43 References 43 3 Nanotechnology in Europe 45 Ottilia Saxl 3.1The Case for the European Research Area45 3.2Why Nanotechnology? 46 3.2.1EUFunding History 48 Contents vii 3.3Nanotechnology in FP6 50 3.3.1Nanomaterials Challenges 51 3.3.2COST: Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research 52 3.3.3Supporting SMEs 53 3.3.4Previous National Policies on Nanotechnology53 3.4National Funding Policies 55 3.4.1Austria 55 3.4.2Belgium 56 3.4.3Denmark 57 3.4.4Finland 59 3.4.5France 60 3.4.6Germany 62 3.4.7Ireland 64 3.4.8Italy 66 3.4.9Luxembourg 67 3.4.10 Netherlands 68 3.4.11 Poland 69 3.4.12 Russia 70 3.4.13 Spain 71 3.4.14 Sweden 71 3.4.15 Switzerland 73 3.4.16 United Kingdom 75 4 The Vision and Strategy of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative 79 M. C. Roco 4.1Motivation 79 4.2Government Investment 81 4.3Transforming Strategy 83 4.3.1Focus on Fundamental Research83 4.3.2Long-Term Vision of NNI R&D As Part of a Coherent Science and Technology Strategy84 4.3.3Policy of Inclusion and Partnerships, Including Promoting Interagency Collaboration 89 4.3.4Preparation of a Diverse Nanotechnology Workforce90 4.3.5Address Broad Societal Goals 92 4.4Closing Remarks 93 Acknowledgements 93 References 93

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