INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL

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INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL. The updated Reading for Today series features abroad range of reading materials and resources toprepare students for academic success. The core ofthe series consists of reading passages of generaland academic interest that provide a context forvocabulary development. The student books alsocontain a wealth of visual materials and nonlineartexts such as graphs, charts, maps and photographs.In addition, each unit is accompanied by aCNN® video clip and Internet activities that providethematically related, current, and authentic materialsfor expanding reading skills and strategies.....

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The Reading for Today Series, Books 3, 4, & 5 INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL Issues for Today, 3rd Edition and Concepts for Today, 2nd Edition and Topics for Today, 3rd Edition Lorraine C. Smith • Nancy Nici Mare Nancy Hubley Australia • Canada • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States Instructor’s Manual with Answer Key for Issues for Today, Concepts for Today, and Topics for Today Lorraine C. Smith, Nancy Nici Mare, Nancy Hubley Publisher, Adult and Academic ESL: James W. Brown Senior Acquisitions Editor: Sherrise Roehr Director of Product Development: Anita Raducanu Development Editor: Sarah Barnicle Editorial Assistants: Katherine Reilly, John Hicks Editorial Intern: Sarah Bilodeau Senior Production Editor: Maryellen E. Killeen Academic Marketing Manager: Laura Needham Director, Global ESL Training & Development: Evelyn Nelson Senior Print Buyer: Mary Beth Hennebury Project Manager: Tünde A. Dewey Contributing Editor: Tania Maundrell-Brown, Kate Briggs Compositor: Parkwood Composition Service Cover Designer: Ha Ngyuen Text Designer: Parkwood Composition Service Printer: WestGroup Copyright © 2005 by Heinle, a part of the Cengage Corporation. Heinle logo is trademark used herein under license. Printed in the United States of America 1 234567891007060504 For more information contact Heinle or you can visit our Internet site at http://www.heinle.com All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution or information storage and retrieval systems—without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this text or product contact us: Tel 1-800-730-2214 Fax 1-800-730-2215 Web www.heinerights.com ISBN 0-7593-9816-X CONTENTS To the Teacheriv Book 3:Issues for Today, Third Edition Teacher Notes2 Answer Key19 Video Scripts39 Assessment42 Book 4:Concepts for Today, Second Edition Teacher Notes54 Answer Key71 Video Scripts92 Assessment95 Book 5:Topics for Today, Third Edition Teacher Notes107 Answer Key129 Video Scripts151 Assessment154 Contents iii TO THE TEACHER The updated Reading for Todayseries features aThey will also look for contextual information and broad range of reading materials and resources todifferentiate between fact and opinion. After view- prepare students for academic success. The core of ing, they should be able to answer comprehension the series consists of reading passages of generalquestions. Here are some specific suggestions for and academic interest that provide a context forhelping your students become active viewers: vocabulary development. The student books also•Prepare students by giving the title of the video. contain a wealth of visual materials and nonlinearHave students predict what it will be about. texts such as graphs, charts, maps and photo-• The video clips are very short (averaging 2–3 graphs. In addition, each unit is accompanied by aminutes per clip) so students may benefit from CNN® video clip and Internet activities that provideviewing them several times. First, “skim the thematically related, current, and authentic materi-video” for an overview of the topic and cover- als for expanding reading skills and strategies. Aage. In other words, view for general compre- Web site gives teachers and students access to fur-hension. Then watch again for details. Students ther resources for Internet exploration and vocabu-can “scan the video” for particular information, lary review. Lastly, assessment materials areperhaps to answer comprehension questions in provided in two forms. Reproducible quizzes forthe book. Repeated viewings can be used to each chapter appear in the Instructor’s Manuals.identify opinions or interpretations. These can The ExamView® Procomputerized Test Bank assistsbe compared and contrasted with views from instructors in building tests and quizzes, whichthe text readings. emphasize vocabulary and grammar in context• The videos are authentic material from CNN® using fresh materials related to the unit themes.and therefore speech is at a natural speed. The introduction to each student book pre-Moreover, speakers occasionally use regional sents strategies by the authors for using the sectionsdialects. This presents a contrast to video mate- for each chapter. In addition to providing chapterrials made especially for English language prereading activities, culture and backgroundlearners where the content, pace and varieties notes, and follow-up activities, this Instructor’sof English are tightly controlled. Let students Manual focuses on ways to make the most of theknow that they are not expected to understand video and assessment materials in the Reading forevery word. Instead, have them initially focus Todayseries. on main points. •Since the videos use authentic language, the Videos speech often contains idioms and new vocabu- lary words. These are identified in the video Use the video clips after students have workedscript. You may choose to pre-teach some of through unit chapters so that concepts and vocabu-these before showing the video to enhance lary in the text provide background scaffolding forcomprehension. viewing. “Reading videos”—actively watching• The video segments share a particular struc- videos for information—is different from passiveture. Usually a reporter introduces the topic by watching for entertainment. Explain that studentsinterviewing knowledgeable people. Sometimes will employ many of the same skills they do inseveral people are presented as supporting reading a text passage. They will engage in examples for the topic. At the end, the reporter “pre-reading” by brainstorming what they alreadyconcludes the segment, often with a summary know about a subject, and they will predict whator personal opinion. Check on comprehension the video will show. During the video, they willof this structure by asking about the reporter, identify the main ideas and supporting details.the setting, and the people who are inter- iv To the Teacher viewed. Where does this take place? Why wereVocabulary review resources such as chapter glos- people chosen for this video? Are some of thesesaries, flashcards, and crossword puzzles may be people “authorities”? How do we know that?found on the individiual book sites. The Web site also provides access to other materials for teacher and student use, such as guidelines and worksheets Internet Resources for self-evaluation of reading strategies, for new vocabulary review, as well as for group project Internet sites change often, so relatively few URLsworksheets. Answers for the assessment found in or Internet addresses are given in the book. Instead,this instructor’s manual may also be found on the students are encouraged to develop search strate-Reading for Today Web site. gies using key words and search engines such as Netscape , Google , or Yahoo . There are several ™ ™ ™ ways in which exploring Internet sites fosters theAssessment development of good reading skills. First, studentsThis Instructor’s Manual contains sets of quizzes for need to consider what words to use with the searcheach chapter in the Reading for Todayseries. The engine. This leads naturally to a discussion of keyfirst section emphasizes reading comprehension terms and their relationships. If a term is too broad,and recall. Encourage students to do this from the search results in too many sites. Conversely, amemory instead of referring to the text passages. narrow key word search will produce a limitedThe second section uses key vocabulary from each range of sites. Use graphic organizers to show spe-chapter in a cloze passage similar to the text. Each cific and more general terms in a hierarchy. text chapter has grammatical exercises and exten- Secondly, the Internet provides a full range ofsive work on vocabulary in context. These sections texts from the simplest and most straightforwardshould make students aware of the function and (often intended for young learners but equallyrelationship of words within sentences. When stu- accessible to beginning English language learners)dents do the cloze exercises, they should pay close to sites meant for technical specialists. For learnersattention to parts of speech as well as collocations. using Issues, Conceptsand Topics, it may beSeparate from the Instructor’s Manual, the appropriate to pre-identify sites that use languageExamView®Test Bank builds on all aspects of skill that stretches their comprehension skills slightly. development presented in the Reading for Today Third, Internet resources vary enormously inseries. Some sections focus on major reading skills terms of accuracy and reliability. Early in the course,such as skimming, scanning, and finding the main find sites with very different perspectives on a topicidea. Vocabulary from the textbooks is recycled in to illustrate this point. Attune students to investigat-new readings on the same topics to provide stu- ing the source of a site. For example, if the domaindents with further opportunity to recognize the in the site address is .edu, the source is academic—meaning of recently learned words in context. from a college or university. With experience, stu-Reflecting the text, there are assessment sections dents will learn to rely on dependable sites. on grammar in context since accurate comprehen- Lastly, using the Internet effectively is a giantsion rests on understanding structure. Visual mate- exercise in critical thinking. Encourage students torial and graphics are presented for analysis and treat online material the same way they wouldinterpretation. Other assessments focus on infer- evaluate print material. From the beginning,ence and drawing conclusions. Teachers can require students to identify their sources. Expectquickly generate tests from material in the test students to paraphrase information in their ownbank or they can use the ExamView® software to words and you’ll reinforce good summarizing andcreate their own custom assessments. vocabulary skills. Reading for Todayprovides an integrated package of resources that enables every teacher to Reading for TodayWeb Site tailor the course to the needs of particular students. We hope you enjoy exploring all five levels of the A list of useful search words and Web sites relatedReading for Todayseries. to topics in the Reading for Todayseries appear on the Heinle Web site at www.heinle.com. 1 TES Issues for Today O TEACHER NOTES CHER N TEA ■3 Unit 1 Trends in Living Chapter 1 A Cultural Difference: Being on Time Audio CD, Track 1 An American professor teaching in Brazil discovered that his students had different ideas about being on time. He learned that promptness depends on social factors in Brazil. Eventually, he adapted his own behavior to fit local expectations. Suggestions for Prereading Activity Direct students’ attention to the unit title and photograph on Student Book (“SB”) page 1 as well as the chapter title and photograph on page 2. Before referring to the table on SB page 3, elicit what on timemeans to your class. Instruct students to look at the table. Ask what the differences are between the types of appointments. What happens in each case if someone is late? Discuss any cultural differences that your students may be aware of. Culture Notes Issues for Today introduces the use of graphic organizers for analyzing the organi- zation of texts and the relationships between parts or components of the reading passage. Many different types of graphic organizers will be used throughout the book, but Chapter 1 uses a flowchart to make the sequence of the reading pas- sage more apparent. Students will need to differentiate between main ideas and supporting details in the reading passage, then fill in the flowchart on page 10. With practice, students will naturally use graphic organizers, but, at first, they may need explicit instruction. Before they attempt to fill in the flowchart, you can help them be aware that they will only use the most important terms and phrases; they will not write details or complete sentences. One effective method for presenting this task is to ask students to use colored highlighters to mark what they consider the most important ideas and words as they read the text. You may first want to model a paragraph for them, using an overhead projector. Then ask students to work in pairs to identify the most important concepts and terms of a new paragraph. Go over choices with the entire class. Explain to stu- dents that the flowchart can help them answer the comprehension questions on SB pages 11 and 12. It can also assist them with writing their summary. As a result, the flowchart becomes an instructional tool for organizing the main points and the essential structure of the reading. As the passage indicates, promptness or perception of time varies from cul- ture to culture and sometimes even within one culture. For example, promptness and speed of response vary considerably from one part of the United States to another. One of the most important studies of cultural perceptions of time is Edward Hall’s The Hidden Dimension (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966). 2 Issues for Today, Book 3, Teacher Notes The distinction between formal and informal settings provides a natural 3 ■ opportunity to discuss registers in language. Be sure to bring up the differences TEA between formal and colloquial stylistic variety. Ask students for examples from their own culture and explain differences in an English-speaking context. CHER N Suggestions for Follow-Up Activities O TES If students want to know more about cultural differences in promptness, enter the words intercultural communication in an Internet search engine such as Google or Yahoo. Alternatively, if your college or university community is multicultural, have students survey people in the community about being “on time” in their culture for the types of appointments given on SB page 3. Chapter 2 Changing Lifestyles and New Eating Habits Audio CD, Track 2 Changes in American lifestyles have had an adverse effect on eating habits. There has been an increase in the number of people living alone, single parents, and double- income families, resulting in less time for cooking and eating meals. Greater knowledge of nutrition results in different food choices, as do ideas about appropriate foods for different occasions. Suggestions for Prereading Activity Ask questions about the family in the photograph on SB page 20 to elicit ideas about working parents and the challenge of multitasking. Ask where these people probably live and why they seem to be in a hurry. Note that in North America long commutes to work are common. Also look at the photographs on SB pages 22 and 34. Who are these people and what are they doing? What do the three photographs have in common? How are they different? Culture Notes The Newbury House Dictionary, 4th Edition, (Boston, M.A.: Heinle, 2004) defines lifestyle as “the manner in which one lives.” This very general definition covers a range of factors that people usually mean when they use the term lifestyle. The reading passage uses the word to refer to demography or household size, marital status, and employment. It can also refer to where a person lives, an individual’s tastes and belongings, and their leisure activities. Lifestyle correlates with socioeconomic background, education, and type of employment or occupa- tion. A college-educated professional who is earning $90,000 a year and living in an upscale neighborhood will have a very different lifestyle from an unemployed laborer who is struggling to pay his or her rent. In the past 50 years in the United States, development has extended out from cities in what is known as urban sprawl. It is in areas of sprawl that most malls or shopping centers are located as well as fast-food outlets, services, and sports facilities. In addition, historical patterns and availability of land have led to most people living in single-family homes in the suburbs. Lifestyle for many Americans means having sufficient income to buy various consumer goods, including cars, advertised heavily in the media. Typically, families own more than one car and depend on driving to reach their jobs, shopping, and recre- ational activities. Vehicles have become larger and more expensive at the same Issues for Today, Book 3, Teacher Notes 3 time that roadways have become more congested. In fact, the most popular car is TES a SUV, a suburban utility vehicle. O Note that there are some contradictions in the reading passage. While it is true that Americans are better informed about nutrition than they were in the CHER N past, they often choose to ignore sound information. For example, they know the TEA dangers of too much cholesterol, yet prefer shrimp and lobster for romantic meals. Both seafoods are high in cholesterol. Similarly, health awareness of obe- ■3 sity and diabetes has not reduced the consumption of greasy, high-calorie snacks and sweets such as donuts, nor has it slowed the merchandising of “super-sized” fast food which has far more calories than any person needs. In the Fact-Finding Exercise on SB page 22, note that some statements are negative. That means that if they are false, double negatives cancel each other out. For example, in the second item, the result is “Americans eat increasing amounts of sweets now.” In Word Forms on SB page 29, point out that sometimes paired sentences are linked in meaning. For example, 4b makes it clear that the answer to 4a is “didn’t employ.” Students should also be aware that the second sentence can also clarify tense use. Suggestions for Follow-Up Activities In the Follow-Up Activity on SB page 33, items d and e pertain to the increase in the number of nontraditional American households. The answers to these questions can be presented either in percentages or numbers. If you use percentages, single-parent households increased the most (by 166% as contrasted to 109% for one-person or 36% for dual-income households). However, if numbers are used, one-person house- holds increased the most, by 11 million during the 20-year period. Ask students to keep a food diary or journal for a week. They should write down what they eat, where they eat (home, type of restaurant, work), why they are eating (snack, regular meal, perhaps boredom), and who they are eating with (family, friends, alone). Suggest that students indicate why they have made particular food choices (a celebration of some kind, diet, taking part in sports). Chapter 3 Dreams: Making Them Work for Us Audio CD, Track 3 A man named Joseph had the same bad dream for months. Dream researchers believe we can remember our dreams and change the bad ones. Through the use of dream therapy techniques, Joseph eventually stopped having nightmares and started having more positive dreams. Suggestions for Prereading Activity Pairwork is an effective way for students to successfully prepare for this reading. Ask students to recall and share a dream that they have had. Explain that they can discuss both good and bad dreams, if they wish. Teachers should be sensitive to the possibility that some students’ dream experiences may be rather personal and best discussed only with a partner. Culture Notes Dreams have fascinated people throughout history. Some people believe that dreaming is a supernatural state. A century ago, the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud thought that dreams were keys to the unconscious mind. He believed that when we sleep, we are in a primitive state where aggressive and sexual feelings 4 Issues for Today, Book 3, Teacher Notes from childhood come to the surface. Although scientists still don’t agree on what 3 ■ dreams really mean, within the last two decades they have learned a great deal TEA about what physically happens to the body during sleep. Sleep researchers have based their understanding on laboratory studies of CHER N humans and animals while they sleep and dream. Scientists attach measuring devices to monitor changes in brain activity, eye movement, breathing, and blood O pressure. Based on thousands of studies, they know that there are two basic types TES of sleep. The names are related to what happens to the eye during these sleep periods. During NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep, blood circulation occurs at a lower rate but there is no dreaming. By contrast, dreams happen during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Most of our sleep is the NREM type, but it alter- nates during the night with four or five periods of dreaming during REM sleep. In all, we dream for about one-quarter of each night’s sleep time. Although scientists can track what happens to the body during sleep, they dis- agree about the function of sleep. Some researchers think that dreams are meaning- less themselves; they only provide a way of getting rid of unused information so we don’t overload our brain. Other scientists think that dreams help us integrate new information with old memories. Still others think dreaming is an important way of unconsciously expressing feelings and, therefore, can be used to treat problems. In Chapter 3, students will be using material from the reading to complete the chart on SB page 44. Ask them to work with a partner to highlight the main ideas, preferably in color. Before they complete the chart, have each pair of stu- dents compare their highlighted sentences with another pair of students. Suggestions for Follow-Up Activities Ask students if they have ever had a dream that actually came true later. If they have, they could write about their dream in their journal. If they haven’t, ask stu- dents to write about the most interesting dream they can remember. Another interesting topic for discussion is whether animals dream. If your students have pets or have worked closely with animals, perhaps they could share their opinions with the class. Ask students what they think animals dream about. Unit 1 Video Report Have students watch the Unit 1 video, Nutrition Survey. Since the video is about eating habits and nutrition, you might want to show it for the first time after completing Chapter 2. Ask students how the information in the video supports and differs from what they have read in the reading passage. Is it true that know- ing more about nutrition results in people eating a healthier diet? Why or why not? Have your students ever stopped eating a favorite food because it isn’t as healthy as other foods? Ask students what they consider to be a balanced diet. After students have discussed the issues presented in the video, ask them to answer the Video Report questions on SB page 58. Unit 2 Issues in Society Chapter 4 Language: Is It Always Spoken? Audio CD, Track 4 Linguists believe language ability is inborn, although the development of communica- tion in deaf babies has only recently been studied. Both hearing and deaf infants make Issues for Today, Book 3, Teacher Notes 5 hand motions, but the motions of deaf infants are more patterned and soon become TES complex enough to communicate messages. In order to learn more about spoken and O signed language, future research will focus on babies with one hearing parent and one deaf parent. CHER N Suggestions for Prereading Activity TEA ■ 3 Ask students if they know any people who are deaf or hearing-impaired. How do these people communicate? How did they learn to do this? Then have students look at the American Sign Language (ASL) chart on SB page 60 and the photo- graphs on SB pages 62 and 73. What’s happening in those photographs? The Newbury House Dictionary defines language as “human communication by systems of written symbols, spoken words, and movements.” Culture Notes Many interesting issues arise in the reading passage. They include the theory that language ability is innate, the use of signs and ASL in communication, and the development of communication in hearing and deaf babies. It is now generally accepted that the ability to use language as defined above is innate or inborn. Since language is symbolic communication, it can be accomplished with signs or body movements and does not always depend on speech. Scientists have conducted a number of experiments with nonhuman pri- mates to see if they can use symbolic communication. These have had some degree of success, so it is not certain that language is unique to humans, although speech is. There is a huge amount of literature available on these topics which may be of interest to your students. The library is a good place to start fur- ther research. Since the Middle Ages, people have developed systems of signs to communi- cate with hearing-impaired persons. Today there are three major systems of man- ually spelling the alphabet. The chart on SB page 60 shows the one most common in America. There is also a Swedish system, plus a two-handed British one. Alphabet signs are used as the equivalent of writing systems for teaching reading as well as for spelling out words not included in the lexicon of ASL. ASL is a fully developed system of symbols that many people consider to be a language in itself. Research on deaf and hearing-impaired infants shows that they can develop communication skills in much the same way that hearing infants do. However, early identification and intervention (focused attention) is very impor- tant so that communication development is not delayed. Many doctors believe all babies should be screened for hearing and vision problems soon after birth. They think that the first six months of life—before babies start babbling—is a very important period in preparation for communication. Intervention often takes the form of teaching mothers and fathers of deaf infants to pay particular attention to when their babies are watching them. Parents should start sign language early, use dramatic facial expressions, and also use touch as a way of getting their baby’s attention. Deaf parents do these things naturally, but it is also possible for hearing parents to adapt these techniques. Suggestions for Follow-Up Activities There are already a number of excellent follow-up suggestions on SB page 73, but if your students are interested in exploring other aspects of nonverbal communi- cation, they might want to explore lip-reading. Locate a videotape that shows a close-up of a person talking. If you can’t locate one, record a short segment of 6 Issues for Today, Book 3, Teacher Notes