Research results on robusta coffee breeding in Vietnam

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Research results on robusta coffee breeding in Vietnam. In the research and development of coffee trees in Vietnam, particularly breeding is one of the most important activities and always prioritized by the Government. Since 1976, the Western Highlands Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute (WASI, former Coffee Research Institute), has invested a lot of efforts in selecting and creating new coffee varieties with good characteristics, namely high yield and big-sized beans, that have contributed to the enormous coffee development, especially to Robusta coffee. During 40 years, WASI has created and made them recognized by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development with total 11 Robusta varieties. Of which, TR4, TR9, and TR11 are largely used in the cultivation in the Central Highlands, TR14 and TR15 are very promising to adapt to new challenge of climate change, and TRS1 is a good solution for quick seedling supplyies for the replanting program. These new varieties are highly recommended for the coffee development program till 2020 and in the coming years.
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Research results on robusta coffee breeding in Vietnam. In the research and development of coffee trees in Vietnam, particularly breeding is one of the most important activities and always prioritized by the Government. Since 1976, the Western Highlands Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute (WASI, former Coffee Research Institute), has invested a lot of efforts in selecting and creating new coffee varieties with good characteristics, namely high yield and big-sized beans, that have contributed to the enormous coffee development, especially to Robusta coffee. During 40 years, WASI has created and made them recognized by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development with total 11 Robusta varieties. Of which, TR4, TR9, and TR11 are largely used in the cultivation in the Central Highlands, TR14 and TR15 are very promising to adapt to new challenge of climate change, and TRS1 is a good solution for quick seedling supplyies for the replanting program. These new varieties are highly recommended for the coffee development program till 2020 and in the coming years..

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Life ScienceS | Agriculture Research results on robusta coffee breeding in Vietnam Viet Ha Phan* Western Highlands Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute Received 28 May 2017; accepted 25 Novenber 2017 Abstract: In the research and development of coffee trees in Vietnam, particularly breeding is one of the most important activities and always prioritized by the Government. Since 1976, the Western Highlands Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute (WASI, former Coffee Research Institute), has invested a lot of efforts in selecting and creating new coffee varieties with good characteristics, namely high yield and big-sized beans, that have contributed to the enormous coffee development, especially to Robusta coffee. During 40 years, WASI has created and made them recognized by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development with total 11 Robusta varieties. Of which, TR4, TR9, and TR11 are largely used in the cultivation in the Central Highlands, TR14 and TR15 are very promising to adapt to new challenge of TR9, TR11, and TR12 [2]. Seedlings are better than clone production because of the production cost and propagation capacity. All Robusta varieties released by WASI are largely planted in the Central Highlands. They have shown a very good adaptation to the ecological condition of the region as well as the ability to give high yield and good quality beans [3]. Methodology climate change, and TRS1 is a good solution for quick seedling supplyies for the replanting program. These new varieties are highly recommended for the coffee development program till 2020 and in the coming years. Materials Robusta clones TR4, TR9, and Keywords: breeding, coffee, high yield, new variety, Robusta, Vietnam. Classification number: 3.1 TR11 were selected in Dak Lak’s coffee growing areas. The late ripening clones TR14 and TR15 were selected from Indonesia’s imported materials in 1996. Background During the last 40 years, a number of research projects have been done by the Western Highlands Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute, and it has selected 11 new Robusta clones for coffee replanting in the Central Highlands’s provinces of Vietnam. These new varieties, especially the three normal ripening clones TR4, TR9, and TR11 and the two late ripening ones TR14 and TR15 have much higher yield and bean quality potentials compared to those of old cultivars [1]. The late ripening clones not only offer good characteristics such as high yield and good bean quality but also allow a delay of the first irrigation timing in the middle of dry season, thus we can save one irrigation application compared to other normal ripening clones. Besides, with the high demand for coffee plantlets to serve replanting, the production of grafted plantlets is not sufficient due to the present capacity in Vietnam. Therefore, the research of good hybrid seeds taken from elite clones is necessary and by that way, TRS1 variety is selected. In fact, TRS1 is hybrid seeds collected from the seed producing garden growing selected clones: TR4, The synthesis variety TRS1 (seed) was created from open-pollinated one in seed producing garden growing TR4, TR9, TR11, and TR12 clones. The TR4 clone was officially recognized as a national variety in 2006 by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Decision No 1086 QĐ/ BNN-KHCN on April 14, 2006); TR9 and TR11 in 2011 (Decision No 175/ QĐ-TT-CCN on May 4, 2011); TRS1 in 2015 (Decision No 324/QĐ-TT-CCN, on November 5, 2015). Research methodology Clones or hybrids, after passing comparison trials and having initial evaluations, are reselected to go through *Email: phanvietha@wasi.ac.vn December 2017 • Vol.59 Number 4 Vietnam Journal of Science, Technology and Engineering 37 Life ScienceS | Agriculture Mother trees Clone selection trials Selected clones Selected scion producing garden Grafted plantlets for production Fig. 1. Robusta varieties selection diagram Selected population Progeny selection trials Selected progeny garden Synthesis open-pollinated seeds Trial periods: TR4, TR11, and TR12 clone trials were implemented from 1999 to 2010; the late ripening clones TR14 and TR15 were from 2006 to 2015; the hybrid coffee TRS1 was from 2010 to 2015. Monitoring and evaluation indicators Growth: Stem diameter, tree height, number of primary branches, branch length, nodes per branch, and fruit bearing nodes, fruits per node. Yield: An average yield of 3 harvests or more in the trial areas was compared with the average yield of mass planting Table 1. Trial results of 3 robusta clones planted in Buon Ma Thuot - Dak Lak. with the same care conditions. 3 harvests’ Clone average yield (tons /ha) TR4 7.3 TR9 6.7 TR11 6.6 Berry/green bean ratio 4.0 4.3 4.2 100 bean’s weight (gr) 18.4 22.5 18.3 Bean’s proportion remained on screen 16 (%) 80.0 94.3 88.2 Leaf rust index (%) 0.0 0.0 0.0 Green bean indicators: Samples are taken from each region with the number of 5-10 samples and for average two harvests. Each sample weighs 2.0 kg of berries. Analyzing and evaluating indicators: Berry/green bean ratio, Weight of 100 beans (g), proportion of beans remained on screen No. 16 (6.3 mm). Leaf rust resistance ability on the field. Data analysis and processing methods Data is processed by biological Fig. 2. TR4 trial in Dak Lak. other trials in the Central Highlands provinces: Dak Lak, Gia Lai, Dak Nong, and Lam Dong (Fig. 1). Clone comparison trials are RCBD with three blocks, 10-30 trees per block, total experimental area: 0.5-1.0 ha per province. The hybrid variety TRS1 is designed to compare with original varieties; experimental garden is the control one that is an average yield garden with the same care conditions and is grown at the same place and period. statistics methods using EXCEL, SAS 9.2 software with F and LSD comparison test. Results and discussions Evaluation results on selecting 3 Robusta clones TR4, TR9, and TR11 As shown in Table 1, the three harvests’ average yields of 3 clones are rather high in the condition of Dak Lak. Among them, TR4 clone shows dominant yield potential at 7.3 tons per ha (Fig. 2). TR9 and TR11 clones can also give high yields (more than 6.0 tons per ha). These three clones are the highest and most stable clones in term of yield potential compared to other six clones recognized by MARD at the same period. 38 Vietnam Journal of Science, Technology and Engineering December 2017 • Vol.59 Number 4 Life ScienceS | Agriculture Bean size and 100 beans’ weight of Table 2. Trial results of 3 robusta clones planted in Iagrai - Gia Lai. these three clones are very impressive: 100 beans’ weight of TR4 and TR11 clones is more than 18 grams. The TR9 clone especially has very big fruit size with 100 beans’ weight which reaches 22.5 grams. In terms of bean proportion remained on the screen No.16, in average, these three clones get more than 80%, in which, TR9 gets 94.3%. 3 harvests’ Clone average yield (tons/ha) TR4 4.2 TR9 4.1 TR11 3.7 Berry/green bean ratio 4.2 4.5 4.4 100 beans’ weight (gr) 15.3 17.0 15.7 Bean proportion remained on screen 16 (%) 63.2 75.0 65.0 Leaf rust index (%) 0.0 0.0 0.0 In Gia Lai province, these three clones are grown since 2005. The results on yields, bean qualities and leaf rust indexes are shown in Table 2. Results in Table 3 show that the three harvests’ average yields of TR4 and TR9 clones are almost the same (4.1-4.2 tons per ha), and the TR11 clone has lower yield. In general, Gia Lai’s clones give quite high yields but a little lower than those in the condition of Dak Lak province. The bean size of these clones in Gia Lai is also big and they show high resistance to leaf rust disease. When being planted in Lam Dong province, the three harvests’ average yields of TR4 and TR11 clones are almost the same (4.8-5.2 tons per ha), while the TR9 clone has lower yield. Especially in the conditions of Lam Dong province, these clones’ bean size is very large with more than 85% of the beans at grade I (on screen No 16). The TR9 clone has 99.2% of grade I beans, and its 100 beans’ weight reaches 29.6 grams. Table 3. Trial results of 3 robusta clones planted in Bao Loc - Lam Dong. 3 harvests’ 100 beans’ Bean proportion Clone average yield weight remained on screen (tons/ha) (gr) 16 (%) TR4 5.57 4.0 18.4 76.7 0.0 TR9 5.20 4.3 23.0 89.5 0.0 TR11 5.10 4.2 18.9 83.0 0.0 Table 4. Characteristics of 3 clones planted in trial regions. 3 harvests’ 100 beans’ Bean proportion Clone average yield weight remained on screen (tons/ha) (gr) 16 (%) TR4 5.2 3.9 21.6 86.9 0.0 TR9 4.8 4.0 29.6 99.2 0.0 TR11 5.0 4.0 22.8 95.8 0.0 Table 5. Yields of Robusta late ripening clones (4 harvests’ average yield). Yield (tons/ha) Time from flowering Clone Average yield to harvesting Dak Lak Gia Lai Lam Dong (months) Trials were implemented in the main coffee growing regions. Yield monitoring results show that in trial regions, these clones give yields varying from 3.3 to 4.0 tons per ha. These clones show good adaptation to the conditions in the Central Highlands (Table 4). TR14 5.63 a 5.15 cd 4.93 d 5.24 a 12 TR15 5.30 bc 5.19 bc 4.90 d 5.13 a 12 TR16 5.42 ab 5.15 cd 5.06 cd 5.21 a 10 TR6 (control) 4.67 e 4.46 e 4.46 e 4.58 b 11 Evaluation results on selecting Average 5.25 a 5.02 b 4.84 c CV(%) = 3.24 Robusta late ripening clones TR14 and TR15 Table 5 shows that in the three trial places, the Robusta late ripening clones give the four harvests’ average yield higher than the control one. These clones can reach from 5.13 to 5.24 tons per ha while the TR6 only reaches 4.58 tons per ha. This difference is statistically significant. Due to the interactions between regional condition and these late ripening clones, four harvests’ average yield varies largely from 4.46 to 5.63 tons of green bean per ha, more than one ton per ha of difference. Especially in Dak Lak province, the TR14 clone gives the highest average yield (5.63 tons per ha) significantly compared with those in December 2017 • Vol.59 Number 4 Vietnam Journal of Science, Technology and Engineering 39 Life ScienceS | Agriculture

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