Evaluation on the yield of some rice varieties with tolerance to salt stress, a case study

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Evaluation on the yield of some rice varieties with tolerance to salt stress, a case study. In recent years, sea water has intruded into paddy fields along the coastal areas of the Mekong River Delta. This phenomenon, e.g abiotic stress, has caused rice yields to decrease significantly. A set of six new varieties of rice, including a variety control, IR28, were tested in Long An Province, a region subjected to abiotic stress, from August 2013 to December 2013. The experiments were arranged according to randomized complete block design, with three replications. Results showed that one new mutant cultivar of rice named CTUSM1 was tolerant to soil and water conditions (ECe, EC 6 dSm-1 ) at the seedling stage; with a yield of 4.43 ton/ha, amylose content of 16.56%, protein content of 6.78%, and a significant resistance to pests and diseases.
Life ScienceS | Agriculture
Evaluation on the yield of some rice varieties
with tolerance to salt stress, a case study
Thi Ai Lien Quan*, Cong Thanh Vo
Department of Genetics and Plant breeding,
College of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Can Tho University
Received 28 April 2017; accepted 30 August 2017
Abstract:
soil is decreased, it is still high due to
In recent years, sea water has intruded into paddy fields along the coastal areas
of the Mekong River Delta. This phenomenon, e.g abiotic stress, has caused
rice yields to decrease significantly. A set of six new varieties of rice, including
a variety control, IR28, were tested in Long An Province, a region subjected
to abiotic stress, from August 2013 to December 2013. The experiments
were arranged according to randomized complete block design, with three
replications. Results showed that one new mutant cultivar of rice named
CTUSM1 was tolerant to soil and water conditions (ECe, EC 6 dSm-1 ) at the
the previous shrimp culture season.
Therefore, the aim of this research is
to identify rice varieties (1) with high
salinity tolerance at the seedling stage,
and (2) that can escape salt water which
intrudes into canals from December on
via a shorter maturity term - around 120
days.
seedling stage; with a yield of 4.43 ton/ha, amylose content of 16.56%, protein
content of 6.78%, and a significant resistance to pests and diseases.
Material and method
Keywords: ECe (electrical conductivity extract), high yield, saline-tolerant rice,
Material and location
seedling stage.
Experiments
were
carried
out
in
Classification number: 3.1
the autumn-winter crop of 2012 and of
2013 in the two districts Can Giuoc and
Can Duoc of Long An province. Four
Introduction
Rice is very sensitive to salinity stress
and is currently listed as the most salt
sensitive cereal crop, with a tolerance
threshold of 3 dSm-1 for most cultivated
varieties [1], whereas, generally, a soil is
only considered saline (salt-affected) if
it has an ECe (electrical conductivity of
its saturation extract) above 4 dSm-1 [2].
Even with an ECe as low as 3.5 dSm-1,
rice loses about 10% of its yield, with
50% yield loss having been recorded for
rice at ECe 7.2 dSm-1 [3].
Rice plant response to salinity varies
according to the growth stage. In the
vast majority of rice cultivars, plants
at the early seedling phase are most
fold compared to when stress occurs in
the ripening phase. When employing
irrigated rice planting in coastal areas,
salinity may occur at any stage of plant
growth. Therefore, it is important to
determine the response to salinity in rice
plants throughout the growth stage.
Salt infected soils are around 700.000
ha during the dry season from December
to May annually [7]; Can Giuoc and
Can Duoc districts are located in the
southeast of Long An province, which
is affected by the Vam Co and Soai Rap
rivers, where rice-shrimp farming is
popular. During this time, farmers take
advantage of salt water by using it for
their shrimp cultures. In the following
season, farmers use natural rain water
varieties (CTUSM1, CTUSM2, BN2,
and OM5629 x TP6) were developed
and selected up to F7 by crossing
(OM5629 xTP6) and mutation method
of temperature shocked (CTUSM1 and
CTUSM2) [8].
Method
Experiments were designed by a
randomized complete block with 3
replications, 6 treatments (CTUSM1,
CTUSM2, OM4900, BN2, OM5629 x
TP6, IR28 (variety control).
VCU testing (Procedure to conduct
tests for Value of cultivation and use
of rice varieties, 2011) applied the
fertilizer formula: 100N-60P2O5-50K2O,
phosphate fertilizer was used in all trials
sensitive to salinity [4-5]. According to
(from June to December) to remove salt
as basal dressing, nitrogen and potassium
[6], salinity stress during seedling phase
from the paddy fields, and then begin
fertilizers were applied according to the
can reduce plant dry weight by two-
planting rice. Although the salinity of
time (Table 1).
*Corresponding author: Email: qtalien@ctu.edu.vn
32
Vietnam Journal of Science,
Technology and Engineering
December 2017 Vol.59 Number 4
Life ScienceS | Agriculture
Table 1. Ratio of Nitrogenand Potassium fertilization according to time (% by
At the panicle initiation stage (50 days
weight).
after sowing, DAS), salinity decreased
to fresh water conditions (0 dSm-1) in
Time application
N
K2O
the autumn-winter 2013 term while the
Before transplanting
The first when recovering and tillering (10 days after transplanting)
50
30
30
40
other season ranged from 4.5 to 4.7
dSm-1. During the boosting stage (70
DAS), salinity increased from 2.7 to 6.3
The second at panicle initiation
20
30
dSm-1. In 2012, at the harvesting stage
(90-108 DAS), salinity increased from
7.3 to 8.6 dSm-1 while in 2013 salinity
decreased to fresh water conditions (0
dSm-1) due to high rain fall. According to
[15, 16], rice is very sensitive to salinity
at the seedling stage; its height, root
length, emergence of new roots, and dry
matter should be expected to decreases
significantly at EC 5-6 dSm-1. Thus, our
new five varieties can be considered
tolerant at the seedling stage.
ECe of soil: The ECe of soil at the
Fig. 1. ECe of water in the autumn-winter 2012 and autumn-winter 2013
crops at Can Giuoc and Can Duoc districts, Long An province.
seedling stage in the A-W 2012 and
A-W 2013 crops ranged from 2.97 to
5.68 dSm-1 in these two districts. And
Table 2. ECe and pH of soil through the growth stage of the rice plant.
the pH in these two districts was around
neutral: 6.68-7.30 (Table 2). At the stage
Location
Stages
Transplanting
ECe (dSm-1) pH
Flowering
ECe (dSm-1)
pH
Harvest
ECe (dSm-1)
pH
from flowering to harvest, the ECe of
soil increased from 5.68 to 9.12 dSm-1
in the season of A-W 2012 in Can Giuoc
Can Giuoc (A-W 2012)
4.56
7.30
5.68
6.78
9.12
6.34
district while at the Can Duoc site it
Can Giuoc (A-W 2013)
2.97
6.68
4.37
6.59
3.27
6.26
increased from 8.75 to 10.96 dSm-1 in the
same season (A-W 2012).
Can Duoc (A-W 2012)
5.68
6.94
8.75
5.95
10.96
6.45
Agronomical characteristics, yield
Can Duoc (A-W 2013)
4.80
6.99
5.92
6.35
5.78
6.91
components and yield
The
following
methods
were
SPSS
programs
were
used
to
carry
The term from germination to
maturity of rice varieties spanned from
followed for analysis of amylose content
out data analysis. An F-test was used
97 to 110 days over the autumn-winter
[9]; protein content [10]; Gelatinization
to
determine
the
differences
among
2012 and autumn-winter 2013 periods in
temperature [11]; Gel consistency [12];
treatments. A Duncan test was applied to
the Can Giuoc and Can Duoc districts of
Grain length and shape [13].
compare means among treatments.
Long An province (Table 3). According
Water EC and salinity were measured
by EC meter (Hanna instrument HI
2550). Five points in the experimental
paddy fields were recorded randomly,
then the means were calculated;
Soil samplings followed [14]: pH,
ECe were sampled at four growing
stages of rice: transplanting, panicle
initiation, ripening, and harvesting.
Results and discussions
Salinity dynamics
EC of water: The EC at the seedling
stage (from transplant to 35 days after
sowing) varied from 2.5 to 6.2 dSm-1 in
the autumn-winter 2012 and autumn-
winter 2013 crops in the Can Giuoc
and Can Duoc districts (Fig. 1). Most of
plants in the IR28 (control) died, while
to research of [17], maturity reached in
from 90-105 days is suitable for shrimp-
rice farming models. Most of these
rice varieties with a suitable maturity
term [18, 19] have shown that an ideal
phenotype of rice should be high yield,
with the plant height being semi-dwarf
(about 90-130 cm). According to [20],
the Mot Bui Do variety of traditional
rice has been chosen as a main cultivated
variety for rice-shrimp models in some
Method to analyze data: Excel and
other varieties developed successfully.
Mekong River Delta provinces such as
December 2017 Vol.59 Number 4
Vietnam Journal of Science,
Technology and Engineering
33
Life ScienceS | Agriculture
Table 3. Maturity and height of rice varieties at Can Giuoc, Can Duoc districts
There is a wealth of research on
in A-W 2012.
yield components and yields. In [21-25],
ideal phenotypes of high performance
Maturity (days)
Height (cm)
rice
were
examined,
with
following
A-W 2012
A-W 2013
A-W 2012
A-W 2013
components analyzed: panicles per
hill (8-10 panicle for transplanting) or
Variety/line
Can
Can
Can
Can
Can
Can
Can
Can
3-4 panicles/hill (sowing), number of
Giuoc
Duoc
Giuoc
Duoc
Giuoc
Duoc
Giuoc
Duoc
panicle/m2 was 270-300 panicle, with
CTUSM1
100
100
105
105
93.5ab
107c
93.5ab
108bc
150 spikelets/panicle and a spikelet rate
reaching over 80% (Table 4).
CTUSM2
100
100
104
103
84.4b
97d
84.4b
105bc
As for the ECe, it changed a lot from
OM4900
105
105
104
105
99.2a
112b
99.2a
122a
the seedling stage to the harvest stage.
BN2
101
101
96
96
83.2b
110bc
83.2b
109b
Final yields of varieties/lines in this
experiment ranged from that of control
OM5629 x TP6
105
105
104
105
98.6a
116a
98.6a
126a
IR28 (which exhibited the lowest yield
IR28
97
97
96
96
82.8b
102c
82.8b
102c
(0.57-1.40 ton/ha)) to that of the mutant
line CTUSM1 (3.52-4.43 ton/ha) which
F
*
*
*
*
exhibited
the
highest
yield
(Table
CV (%)
6.29
1.90
6.29
2.86
5). IR28 died after one to two weeks
DAS, while CTUSM1 tolerated these
Table 4. Yield component of rice varieties.
conditions. The yield of CTUSM1 was
also higher than that of MTL119, which
Panicle/m2
Spikelets/panicle
Weight 1000 grains (g)
exhibited
a
tolerance
at
the
seedling
stage of 6‰ tested by Yoshida solution
A-W 2012
A-W 2013
A-W 2012
A-W 2013
A-W 2012
A-W 2013
(4.4 ton/ha in fresh water soil; 2.0- 3.0
Variety/line
ton/ha in saline soil, ECe 1.4 dSm-1,
Can
Giuoc
Can
Duoc
Can
Giuoc
Can
Duoc
Can
Giuoc
Can
Duoc
Can
Giuoc
Can
Duoc
Can
Giuoc
Can
Duoc
Can
Giuoc
Can
Duoc
0 ton/ha in ECe 2.11 dSm-1). [26, 27]
reported that OM9605 and OM5953
CTUSM1
235c
243b
251.3b
286a
97b
83b
105.7a
81b
23.2b
23.7b
23.2b
22.8bc
could tolerate salt concentration at 6-8
dSm-1, giving yields from 5 to 7 ton/ha
CTUSM2
261b
244b
291.3a
297a
83c
80b
79.0b
87b
22.6b
22.3c
22.2bc
22.2bc
under fresh water conditions.
OM4900
192d
195c
196.0c
205b
101ab
79b
114.0a
90b
24.9a
25.6a
25.2a
25.6a
Evaluation of pest resistance in the
BN2
260b
230b
249.3b
290a
81c
76b
79.5b
79c
22.7b
21.6d
23.4b
21.9c
experimental field
OM5629 x
TP6
195d
165d
203.7c
176b
107a
116a
114.7a
116a
24.8a
25.4a
24.9a
25.2a
Rice leaf
Pyricularia
blast caused by fungus
oryzae appeared on
IR28
283a
322a
201.3c
201b
50d
27c
50.4c
51d
21.9c
22.6c
21.6c
23.3b
CTUSM2 and OM4900 varieties were
scored at level 3 while CTUSM1 was
F
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
at
level
0.
Moreover,
OM4900
was
also
affected
by
neck
blast.
Other
CV (%)
4.52
3.39
3.60
8.45
4.10
6.03
8.12
6.39
1.60
1.59
3.24
3.00
varieties/lines
were
not
sensitive
to
this
fungus.
Leaves
of
six
varieties/
Bac Lieu, Ca Mau, Kien Giang, yielding
height of all six tested varieties/lines of
lines were damaged by rice leaf folder
a plant height from 100-120 cm, this
this experiment appear to be suitable
Cnaphalocrosisat at level 3, damage was
height
being
considered
as
sufficient
phenotypes for high yield shrimp-rice
about 11-20% from tillering to maturity
for
shrimp-rice
models,
so
the
plant
models.
(Table 6).
34
Vietnam Journal of Science,
Technology and Engineering
December 2017 Vol.59 Number 4
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Evaluation on the yield of some rice varieties with tolerance to salt stress, a case study. In recent years, sea water has intruded into paddy fields along the coastal areas of the Mekong River Delta. This phenomenon, e.g abiotic stress, has caused rice yields to decrease significantly. A set of six new varieties of rice, including a variety control, IR28, were tested in Long An Province, a region subjected to abiotic stress, from August 2013 to December 2013. The experiments were arranged according to randomized complete block design, with three replications. Results showed that one new mutant cultivar of rice named CTUSM1 was tolerant to soil and water conditions (ECe, EC 6 dSm-1 ) at the seedling stage; with a yield of 4.43 ton/ha, amylose content of 16.56%, protein content of 6.78%, and a significant resistance to pests and diseases..

Nội dung

Life ScienceS | Agriculture Evaluation on the yield of some rice varieties with tolerance to salt stress, a case study Thi Ai Lien Quan*, Cong Thanh Vo Department of Genetics and Plant breeding, College of Agriculture and Applied Biology, Can Tho University Received 28 April 2017; accepted 30 August 2017 Abstract: In recent years, sea water has intruded into paddy fields along the coastal areas of the Mekong River Delta. This phenomenon, e.g abiotic stress, has caused rice yields to decrease significantly. A set of six new varieties of rice, including a variety control, IR28, were tested in Long An Province, a region subjected to abiotic stress, from August 2013 to December 2013. The experiments were arranged according to randomized complete block design, with three replications. Results showed that one new mutant cultivar of rice named CTUSM1 was tolerant to soil and water conditions (ECe, EC 6 dSm-1 ) at the seedling stage; with a yield of 4.43 ton/ha, amylose content of 16.56%, protein content of 6.78%, and a significant resistance to pests and diseases. Keywords: ECe (electrical conductivity extract), high yield, saline-tolerant rice, soil is decreased, it is still high due to the previous shrimp culture season. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify rice varieties (1) with high salinity tolerance at the seedling stage, and (2) that can escape salt water which intrudes into canals from December on via a shorter maturity term - around 120 days. Material and method Material and location seedling stage. Experiments were carried out in Classification number: 3.1 Introduction Rice is very sensitive to salinity stress and is currently listed as the most salt sensitive cereal crop, with a tolerance threshold of 3 dSm-1 for most cultivated varieties [1], whereas, generally, a soil is only considered saline (salt-affected) if it has an ECe (electrical conductivity of its saturation extract) above 4 dSm-1 [2]. Even with an ECe as low as 3.5 dSm-1, rice loses about 10% of its yield, with 50% yield loss having been recorded for rice at ECe 7.2 dSm-1 [3]. Rice plant response to salinity varies according to the growth stage. In the vast majority of rice cultivars, plants at the early seedling phase are most sensitive to salinity [4-5]. According to [6], salinity stress during seedling phase can reduce plant dry weight by two- fold compared to when stress occurs in the ripening phase. When employing irrigated rice planting in coastal areas, salinity may occur at any stage of plant growth. Therefore, it is important to determine the response to salinity in rice plants throughout the growth stage. Salt infected soils are around 700.000 ha during the dry season from December to May annually [7]; Can Giuoc and Can Duoc districts are located in the southeast of Long An province, which is affected by the Vam Co and Soai Rap rivers, where rice-shrimp farming is popular. During this time, farmers take advantage of salt water by using it for their shrimp cultures. In the following season, farmers use natural rain water (from June to December) to remove salt from the paddy fields, and then begin planting rice. Although the salinity of the autumn-winter crop of 2012 and of 2013 in the two districts Can Giuoc and Can Duoc of Long An province. Four varieties (CTUSM1, CTUSM2, BN2, and OM5629 x TP6) were developed and selected up to F7 by crossing (OM5629 xTP6) and mutation method of temperature shocked (CTUSM1 and CTUSM2) [8]. Method Experiments were designed by a randomized complete block with 3 replications, 6 treatments (CTUSM1, CTUSM2, OM4900, BN2, OM5629 x TP6, IR28 (variety control). VCU testing (Procedure to conduct tests for Value of cultivation and use of rice varieties, 2011) applied the fertilizer formula: 100N-60P2O5-50K2O, phosphate fertilizer was used in all trials as basal dressing, nitrogen and potassium fertilizers were applied according to the time (Table 1). *Corresponding author: Email: qtalien@ctu.edu.vn 32 Vietnam Journal of Science, Technology and Engineering December 2017 • Vol.59 Number 4 Life ScienceS | Agriculture Table 1. Ratio of Nitrogenand Potassium fertilization according to time (% by weight). At the panicle initiation stage (50 days after sowing, DAS), salinity decreased Time application N K2O Before transplanting 50 30 The first when recovering and tillering (10 days after transplanting) 30 40 The second at panicle initiation 20 30 to fresh water conditions (0 dSm-1) in the autumn-winter 2013 term while the other season ranged from 4.5 to 4.7 dSm-1. During the boosting stage (70 DAS), salinity increased from 2.7 to 6.3 dSm-1. In 2012, at the harvesting stage (90-108 DAS), salinity increased from 7.3 to 8.6 dSm-1 while in 2013 salinity decreased to fresh water conditions (0 dSm-1) due to high rain fall. According to [15, 16], rice is very sensitive to salinity at the seedling stage; its height, root length, emergence of new roots, and dry matter should be expected to decreases significantly at EC 5-6 dSm-1. Thus, our new five varieties can be considered tolerant at the seedling stage. ECe of soil: The ECe of soil at the Fig. 1. ECe of water in the autumn-winter 2012 and autumn-winter 2013 crops at Can Giuoc and Can Duoc districts, Long An province. Table 2. ECe and pH of soil through the growth stage of the rice plant. seedling stage in the A-W 2012 and A-W 2013 crops ranged from 2.97 to 5.68 dSm-1 in these two districts. And the pH in these two districts was around neutral: 6.68-7.30 (Table 2). At the stage Stages Location Transplanting ECe (dSm-1) pH Flowering ECe (dSm-1) pH Harvest ECe (dSm-1) pH from flowering to harvest, the ECe of soil increased from 5.68 to 9.12 dSm-1 in the season of A-W 2012 in Can Giuoc Can Giuoc (A-W 2012) Can Giuoc (A-W 2013) Can Duoc (A-W 2012) Can Duoc (A-W 2013) 4.56 7.30 2.97 6.68 5.68 6.94 4.80 6.99 5.68 6.78 4.37 6.59 8.75 5.95 5.92 6.35 9.12 6.34 3.27 6.26 10.96 6.45 5.78 6.91 district while at the Can Duoc site it increased from 8.75 to 10.96 dSm-1 in the same season (A-W 2012). Agronomical characteristics, yield components and yield The following methods were followed for analysis of amylose content [9]; protein content [10]; Gelatinization temperature [11]; Gel consistency [12]; Grain length and shape [13]. Water EC and salinity were measured by EC meter (Hanna instrument HI 2550). Five points in the experimental paddy fields were recorded randomly, then the means were calculated; Soil samplings followed [14]: pH, ECe were sampled at four growing stages of rice: transplanting, panicle initiation, ripening, and harvesting. Method to analyze data: Excel and SPSS programs were used to carry out data analysis. An F-test was used to determine the differences among treatments. A Duncan test was applied to compare means among treatments. Results and discussions Salinity dynamics EC of water: The EC at the seedling stage (from transplant to 35 days after sowing) varied from 2.5 to 6.2 dSm-1 in the autumn-winter 2012 and autumn-winter 2013 crops in the Can Giuoc and Can Duoc districts (Fig. 1). Most of plants in the IR28 (control) died, while other varieties developed successfully. The term from germination to maturity of rice varieties spanned from 97 to 110 days over the autumn-winter 2012 and autumn-winter 2013 periods in the Can Giuoc and Can Duoc districts of Long An province (Table 3). According to research of [17], maturity reached in from 90-105 days is suitable for shrimp-rice farming models. Most of these rice varieties with a suitable maturity term [18, 19] have shown that an ideal phenotype of rice should be high yield, with the plant height being semi-dwarf (about 90-130 cm). According to [20], the Mot Bui Do variety of traditional rice has been chosen as a main cultivated variety for rice-shrimp models in some Mekong River Delta provinces such as December 2017 • Vol.59 Number 4 Vietnam Journal of Science, Technology and Engineering 33 Life ScienceS | Agriculture Table 3. Maturity and height of rice varieties at Can Giuoc, Can Duoc districts in A-W 2012. There is a wealth of research on yield components and yields. In [21-25], ideal phenotypes of high performance Maturity (days) Height (cm) rice were examined, with following components analyzed: panicles per A-W 2012 A-W 2013 A-W 2012 A-W 2013 hill (8-10 panicle for transplanting) or Variety/line CTUSM1 CTUSM2 OM4900 BN2 OM5629 x TP6 IR28 F CV (%) Can Can Can Can Giuoc Duoc Giuoc Duoc 100 100 105 105 100 100 104 103 105 105 104 105 101 101 96 96 105 105 104 105 97 97 96 96 Can Can Giuoc Duoc 93.5ab 107c 84.4b 97d 99.2a 112b 83.2b 110bc 98.6a 116a 82.8b 102c * * 6.29 1.90 Can Can Giuoc Duoc 93.5ab 108bc 84.4b 105bc 99.2a 122a 83.2b 109b 98.6a 126a 82.8b 102c * * 6.29 2.86 3-4 panicles/hill (sowing), number of panicle/m2 was 270-300 panicle, with 150 spikelets/panicle and a spikelet rate reaching over 80% (Table 4). As for the ECe, it changed a lot from the seedling stage to the harvest stage. Final yields of varieties/lines in this experiment ranged from that of control IR28 (which exhibited the lowest yield (0.57-1.40 ton/ha)) to that of the mutant line CTUSM1 (3.52-4.43 ton/ha) which exhibited the highest yield (Table 5). IR28 died after one to two weeks DAS, while CTUSM1 tolerated these Table 4. Yield component of rice varieties. conditions. The yield of CTUSM1 was also higher than that of MTL119, which Panicle/m2 Spikelets/panicle Weight 1000 grains (g) exhibited a tolerance at the seedling stage of 6‰ tested by Yoshida solution A-W 2012 A-W 2013 Variety/line A-W 2012 A-W 2013 A-W 2012 A-W 2013 (4.4 ton/ha in fresh water soil; 2.0- 3.0 ton/ha in saline soil, ECe 1.4 dSm-1, CTUSM1 CTUSM2 OM4900 BN2 OM5629 x TP6 IR28 F Can Can Giuoc Duoc 235c 243b 261b 244b 192d 195c 260b 230b 195d 165d 283a 322a * * Can Can Giuoc Duoc 251.3b 286a 291.3a 297a 196.0c 205b 249.3b 290a 203.7c 176b 201.3c 201b * * Can Can Can Can Giuoc Duoc Giuoc Duoc 97b 83b 105.7a 81b 83c 80b 79.0b 87b 101ab 79b 114.0a 90b 81c 76b 79.5b 79c 107a 116a 114.7a 116a 50d 27c 50.4c 51d

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