Performance analysis of Multi-hop and cluster based routing protocols for mobile heath monitoring

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Performance analysis of Multi-hop and cluster based routing protocols for mobile heath monitoring. This paper aims to depict the performance of cluster based routing protocol (Leach protocol) and multipath routing protocol (Multipath Ring Routing protocol) for Wireless Body Sensor Networks where the mobility is a crucial constraint to handle.
International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security
VOL. 2, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2014, 392–399
Available online at: www.ijcncs.org
ISSN 2308-9830
Performance Analysis of Multi-hop and Cluster Based Routing
Protocols for Mobile Heath Monitoring
MARYAM EL AZHARI1, AHMED TOUMANARI2 and RACHID LATIF3
1, 2, 3 ESSI, National School of Applied Sciences, Ibnou Zohr University, Agadir Morocco
E-mail: 1maryam.ensa@gmail.com, 2atoumanari@yahoo.fr, 3latif_rachid@yahoo.fr
ABSTRACT
This paper aims to depict the performance of cluster based routing protocol (Leach protocol) and multipath
routing protocol (Multipath Ring Routing protocol) for Wireless Body Sensor Networks where the mobility
is a crucial constraint to handle. Previous works mainly dedicate the above mentioned protocols to Wireless
Sensor Networks where the topology is static and support hundreds of sensors, however, their performance
is expected to highly degrade when it comes to a mobile environment including a limited number of
sensors. The results proved that multipath routing performs better than cluster based routing in both static
and mobile topology.
Keywords: Wireless Body Sensor Networks, Routing Protocols, Cluster Based Protocol, Multipath Routing
Protocol, Mobile Networks.
1
INTRODUCTION
heating
effect,
thus
a
very
mobile
environment
leads to a continuous disconnection
of sensors
Wireless Body Sensor Networks is a special kind
increasing
though
its
inefficiency
in
terms
of
of Sensor Networks characterized by a short range
throughput,
end-to-end
delay
and
energy
of transmission and a limited number of in-body
consumption. Data priority is a factor that should be
(implanted
or
swallowed)
sensors
and
on-body
taken
into
consideration
when
implementing
a
sensors capable of monitoring medical and non
routing protocol for WBSNs. EEG and ECG signals
medical applications using
multi-hop and single
have to be delivered with high priority especially
hop
topologies.
Several
protocols
have
been
for persons with critical situation [2] . Most of
proposed to handle data packets routing in Wireless
routing
protocols
proposed
for
Wireless
Sensor
Sensor
Netwoks
[1],
however
these
protocols
Networks are based on a static topology where path
cannot be applied directly to Wireless Body Sensor
establishment is performed during the set up phase,
Networks since
additional constraints are
added
however when it comes to a mobile environment,
such as : Energy supply, medical sensors tends to
the set up phase might experience serious packet
have
a
small
size
compared
to
normal
sensors
loss
which
degrades
the
throughput
of
the
dispersed in fields, which implicates smaller battery
corresponding routing protocol. In our work, we
size, thus a certain amount of energy consumed
aim
to
shed
the
light
on
the
performance
of
within Sensor Networks might lead to a decrease of
following routing protocols: LEACH as a cluster
battery charge corresponding to “x” units, these
based and MULTIPATH RING as multipath based
units might lead to a complete dysfunctioning of a
routing protocol. The reason behind this analysis is
medical sensor networks, for this, it is plausible to
first
of
all
finding
out
which
type
of
routing
choose
the
most
suitable
routing
protocol
to
protocols
is
well
suited
for
data
delivery
in
medical application. Another important constraint
Wireless Body Sensor Networks, and second of all
is: Mobility: the body experiences high mobility,
preparing
a
solid
ground
to
implement
a
new
which takes a variety of models such as :SITTING,
routing protocol responding to WBSNs constraints
WALKING,
LAYING-DOWN,
RUNNING,etc..,
based
on
the
results
analysis.
The
paper
is
medical sensors are supposed to have small power
organized
as
follows:
section
2
presents
an
of transmission in order to minimize the tissue
overview
of
Wireless
Body
Sensor
Networks
393
M. E. Azhari et. al / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 2 (11), November 2014
applications,
section
3
presents
the
functioning
mechanism of LEACH and MULTIPATH RING
routing protocols. An analysis of the performance is
given in section 4; finally Section 5 concludes this
paper.
2
OVERVIEW OF WIRELESS BODY
SENSOR NETWORKS APPLICATIONS
A
Wireless
Body
Sensor
networks
(WBSNs)
consist of multiple sensors located on the human
body and combined with a local end point, it could
be a Personal digital assistant (PDA) ,a cell phone
or any end point capable of collecting, processing
data and send it back to the base station where
Fig. 1. Wireless Body Sensor Networks
suitable treatments are taken place (see . Medical
sensors are used in many applications such as:
3
OVERVIEW OF LEACH AND
2.1 Asthma
MULTIPATH RING ROUTING
PROTOCOLS
A body sensor networks is a very useful solution
for patients having asthmatic seizures, it is based on
3.1 Leach Protocol
deploying a specific number of sensor nodes on the
body which sense allergens in the environment such
as dust mite allergen, pet dander, pollen, mold, etc
and transfer the results back to the doctors [3].
Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy is a
TDMA-based MAC protocol which is integrated
with clustering and a simple routing protocol in
wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The goal of
2.2 Cancer Detection
LEACH is to lower the energy consumption
required to create and maintain clusters in order to
A body sensor networks is a very useful solution
for patients having asthmatic seizures, it is based on
improve the life time of a wireless sensor network
[6]. The main features of LEACH are:
deploying a specific number of sensor nodes on the
body which sense allergens in the environment such
• Setting up Clusters
as dust mite allergen, pet dander, pollen, mold, etc
and transfer the results back to the doctors [4].
• Rotating Cluster Heads role of the
corresponding cluster
2.3 Glucose Level Monitoring
• Aggregation of data within a specific cluster
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems use
and transmitting it back to the base station.
a tiny sensor inserted under the skin to check
glucose levels in tissue fluid. The sensor stays in
place for several days to a week and then must be
replaced. A transmitter sends information about
glucose levels via radio waves from the sensor to a
pager like wireless monitor. The user must check
blood samples with a glucose meter to program the
devices. Because currently approved CGM devices
are not as accurate and reliable as standard blood
glucose meters, users should confirm glucose levels
with a meter before making a change in treatment
[5].
In Leach, sensors nodes are organized in clusters
where a specific node is selected as a cluster head
(see Figure 2 and Figure 3). Each node belonging to
a cluster transmit its data to the corresponding
cluster head data to that aggregates the data and
transmit it back to the base station. LEACH is
divided into rounds, and each round starts with a
set-up phase followed by a steady phase. During the
set up phase, each node sends information about its
residual energy and its distance towards the sink
node. Based on a central algorithm, the base station
will then select and broadcast cluster head identifier