Gossip based energy aware routing algorithm for wireless sensor network

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Gossip based energy aware routing algorithm for wireless sensor network. In this paper we propose three routing schemes based on the well-known Gossiping protocol. The proposed algorithms are evaluated in terms of different parameters by simulation tools. The achieved results of simulations show performance improvement of network operation in terms of network lifetime, delay and packet loss compared to Gossiping and FELGossiping algorithms.
International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security
VOL. 3, NO. 4, APRIL 2015, 164–172
Available online at: www.ijcncs.org
E-ISSN 2308-9830 (Online) / ISSN 2410-0595 (Print)
Gossip-Based Energy Aware Routing Algorithm for Wireless
Sensor Network
S.pishyar1, A.Ghiasian2 and M.R.Khayyambashi3
1 Faculty of Computer Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Shahrekord University, ShahreKord, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Architecture, Faculty of Computer Engineering, University
of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
E-mail: 1pishyar.safoura@yahoo.com, 2ghiasian.ali@eng.sku.ac.ir, 3m.r.khayyambashi@eng.ui.ac.ir
ABSTRACT
Many advances have been made in wireless sensor networks (WSNs)
which are as varied as the
applications; and many more are in progress. There are some intrinsic limitations related to WSNs,
including scarcity of energy supply, limited processing ability, and lack of processing memory. One of the
important considerations of network designers is to devise protocols and algorithms in order to tackle with
mentioned restrictions. Among different algorithm categories, routing protocols have direct impact on
energy consumption and life time of the network. In this paper we propose three routing schemes based on
the well-known Gossiping protocol. The proposed algorithms are evaluated in terms of different parameters
by simulation tools. The achieved results of simulations show performance improvement of network
operation in terms of network lifetime, delay and packet loss compared to Gossiping and FELGossiping
algorithms.
Keywords: Energy Consumption, Routing Algorithms, Network Lifetime, Wireless Sensor Network.
1
INTRODUCTION
WSN, regardless of the application, is to maximize
the
network
lifetime
and
minimize
the
overall
Wireless
sensor
networks
(WSN)
consists
of
energy consumption.
many tiny sensors which are usually used to collect
In general, analyses of network lifetime is not a
local information such as pressure and temperature
straightforward task due to its dependency on many
and send the gathered information to a base station
factors, such as network architecture and protocols,
(also known as sink). Sensor networks are deployed
data
collection
procedure,
lifetime
definition,
in several environments including military, medical
channel
characteristics,
and
energy
consumption
and household applications. In all of those fields,
model [4]. The most significant source of energy
energy consumption plays a significant role in the
consumption is regarding to transmission of data
performance of WSN. The reason is that sensor
packets[5]. Therefore, to extend network life time,
nodes are equipped with a limited amount of power
the number of transmissions must be reduced as
supply. In many applications, it's not a feasible task
many as possible. By random forwarding, the well-
to replace the old empty battery with a new one.
known Gossiping algorithm, tries to decrease the
Consequently, various aspects of data delivery in
number of packet transmission compared to naïve
WSN,
including
routing
algorithms,
should
be
flooding approach. In this paper, we go through
energy
aware.
The
requirements
of
routing
Gossiping and other related routing algorithm while
protocols designed for environmental applications
their pros and cons are explored. To overcome the
are different from those designed for military or
limitations of Gossiping and its other extension,
healthcare
applications
in
many
aspects
[1,2,3].
FELGossiping,
we
propose
three
new
routing
However, a common target of routing protocols in
algorithms. Simulation results show the improve-
165
S. pishyar et. al / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 3 (4), April 2015
ment
of
the
proposed
algorithms
compared
to
energy depletion at the receiver can be calculated
Gossiping and FELGossiping.
by equation (2).
The
remaining
of
the
paper
is
organized
as
follows.
In
section
2,
the
system
model
is
presented. In section 3, related works and problems
are reviewed. The proposed algorithms are
Er = (k *Erx)
(2)
presented in section 4. In section 5, simulation
results are presented and discussed. Finally we
3
RELATED ROUTING ALGORITHMS
conclude the paper in section 6.
The simple and naïve routing method is flooding
2
RADIO MODEL
[7]. In flooding, each sensor receiving a data packet
broadcasts it to all of its neighbors and this process
To model the behavior of the sensor, we use a
classic radio model in [6]. The model assumes that
transmission and reception of packets consumes
some amount of energy which is proportional to the
packet length. The block diagram representation of
the radio model is shown in fig. 1. The model
consists of a pair of transmitter and receiver with
distance “d” between them. Etx, Erx are the amount
of energy consumption in processor and electronic
part of transmitter and receiver respectively. Eamp
is the amount of energy depletion in transmitter
amplifier which is in relation to the type of
propagation model, either free space or multipath.
The parameter k in the model represents the size of
packet in bits and parameter n is the path loss
exponent. The value of n is 2 for free space and 4
for multipath propagation.
When a node transmits a packet, each bit in a
packet consumes Etx amount of transmitter energy,
and Eamp amount of amplifier energy. Then, a
packet of length k consumes an overall energy of Et
as shown in equation (1).
continues until the packet arrives at the destination
or the maximum number of hops for the packet is
reached. Although flooding is very easy to
implement, it has several drawbacks. We refer to
Figures 2 and 3 which are adopted from [8]. Such
drawbacks include implosion problem which is
caused by duplicated messages sent to the same
node and overlap problem which occurs when two
nodes in the same region send similar packets to the
same neighbor node. Obviously, flooding approach
causes a large amount of energy wastage and
because of energy limitation in wireless sensor
network is not a good candidate for routing
strategy.
Gossiping is an improved version of flooding
where the receiving node sends the packet to a
randomly selected neighbor, which picks another
random neighbor to forward the packet to and so on
[7]. Gossiping avoids the problem of implosion by
just selecting a random node to send the packet
rather than broadcasting. However, this can cause a
large delay in propagation of data through the
nodes. Meanwhile, blind selection of the
forwarding neighbors would increase the possibility
of packet loss.
Fig. 1. radio model[6]
Et = (k *Etx) + (k * Eamp * dn)
(1)
The receiver part of each node consumes Erx
amount of energy per bit. Then the total volume of
Fig. 2. The implosion problem. Node A starts by flooding
its data to all of its neighbors. D gets two same copies of
data eventually, which is not necessary.