Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

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Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smartphones (Wi-Fi standard), Internet Protocol (IP) phones, personal digital assistant (PDA) for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs.
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Original Article
VERIFICATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS FROM
WIRELESS DEVICES IN OPERATING NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
SONG-HAE YE a, YOUNG-SIK KIM a, HO-SUN LYOU a, MIN-SUK KIM a, and
JOON LYOU b,*
a Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP), Central Research Institute, 1312 Beon-gil, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343,
Republic of Korea
b Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305e764, Republic of Korea
a r t i c l e
i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Article history:
Wireless communication technologies, especially smartphones, have become increasingly
Received 6 April 2015
common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also
Received in revised form
expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless tech-
21 June 2015
nology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs)
Accepted 25 June 2015
because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in
Available online 11 August 2015
operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work effi-
ciency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired tele-
Keywords:
phone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network
Electromagnetic Interference/
to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and
Radio Frequency Interference
personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe
Instruments and control
shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smartphones (Wi-Fi standard), Internet Protocol (IP) phones, per-
Sensitive equipment
sonal digital assistant (PDA) for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote
Wireless technology
site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that
can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has
only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic
influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the
electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless
devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic inter-
ference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) from portable and fixed wireless devices
with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs.
Copyright © 2015, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC on behalf of Korean Nuclear Society.
* Corresponding author.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://
creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any me-
dium, provided the original work is properly cited.
1738-5733/Copyright © 2015, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC on behalf of Korean Nuclear Society.
730
1.
Introduction
2.
Review of electromagnetic wave
verification requirements
The use of wireless technology in nuclear power plants
(NPPs)
has
numerous
advantages.
Generally,
wireless
In order to use wireless communication in operating NPPs, the
communication technology can be associated with a tradi-
performance of the main equipment should be protected from
tional wiring connection sensor and has the additional
the electromagnetic waves generated from portable wireless
advantage of reducing cabling costs. Despite these advan-
devices. The applied electromagnetic wave validation criteria
tages, it is difficult to apply wireless technology in opera-
of domestic NPPs are diverse and different depending on the
tional
NPPs
due
to
problems
with
cyber
security
and
year of NPP construction. In the case of HBN 5, which has been
electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference
operating since 1995, the application reference date of the
(EMI/RFI). For instance, a wireless communication network is
plant construction and operation was approved in the 1990s.
more vulnerable to hacking than a wired communication
HBN 5 used the Military Standards 461A of the US Department
network. It has not been verified that safety and non-safety
of Defense as validation criteria of electromagnetic waves at
systems under EMI/RFI conditions have no problems during
the time of plant construction. The Regulatory Guide 1.180
operation. The application of wireless technology, hence, has
was first issued in 2000 as the test guideline of electromag-
only been utilized during the overhaul period of domestic
netic waves for the safety I&C system of NPPs. As analogue
NPPs on the basis of safety having the highest priority. All
instruments have been gradually upgraded to digital in-
domestic NPPs are trying to achieve operational efficiency,
struments, validation criteria for electromagnetic waves are
safe operation, and reduction of human error by using In-
also needed. Currently, U.S. RG-1.180 Rev1 (2003) and EPRI TR-
formation Technology (IT). The commercial nuclear industry
102323 have been applied as the validation criteria of the
will need to invest in the necessary infrastructure to support
electromagnetic waves in domestic NPPs. These standards are
mobile technology [1].
summarized in Table 1. The frequency band of electromag-
Currently Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon,
netic
validation
requirements
was
changed
as
follows:
Republic of Korea, is pushing to adopt wireless devices at
10 kHz~1 GHz030 MHz~10 GHz, based on the environmental
Hanbit 5,6 (HBN 5,6) as a pilot operating NPP. It is also
changes of digital equipment from the analogue equipment in
trying to change the plant designs in order to connect
NPPs. However, the electrical field strength (10 V/m) re-
existing telephone and Wi-Fi wireless networks. This paper
quirements have not changed. In addition, the latest regula-
proposes a separation distance limit for operating wireless
tory requirements (Reg. 1.180, Rev1) require the gain margin
devices
in
front
of
the
instruments
and
control
(I&C)
(8dB) to be larger than the operating envelope (140dB) in order
equipment. This decision is based on testing results from
to use wireless devices at operating NPPs. The electromag-
the test-bed and field susceptibility tests. As a simple and
netic emission and immunity tests of the associated test
effective method for reducing EMI problems caused by
criteria (EPRI TR-102323 and Regulatory Guide 1.180 standard)
wireless devices, an exclusion zone around the system
have been revised to reflect the characteristics and technical
cabinets and areas where I&C equipment was installed was
analysis of the plant equipment. The I&C equipment is small-
set up. This restricted area (exclusion zones) for using
powered and digitized in NPPs. Therefore, an emission test of
wireless portable devices was obtained from calculations
equipment may be used as a basis to maintain or reduce the
and experimental results based on the latest criteria and
emission
limit
values,
because
the
equipment
may
be
standards.
vulnerable to electromagnetic waves. An immunity test has
Table 1 e The changes in trends of radiated electric field standards in domestic nuclear power plants.
Test standards
Revision (yr)
Radiated emissions (RE102)
Radiated susceptibility (RS103)
Measuring
Allowable
Measuring
Allowable
frequency (MHz)
limit (dBmV/m)
frequency (MHz)
limit (dBmV/m)
EPRI TR-102323
Rev.1(1997)
0.01~1
80
0.01~1,000
140
1~1,000
80~60
Rev.2(2000)
0.01~0.08
95~80
0.01(30)~10,000
140
0.08~1
80
1~100
80~66
100~10,000a
66~80
Rev.3(2004)
2~100
44
0.01(30)~10,000
140
100~10,000a
44~83.9
Regulatory Guide
First Issue(2000)
0.1~2
95~59
0.01~1,000
140
1.180
2~25
59
25~1,000
59~72
Rev.1(2003)
2~25
59
30~10,000
140
25~10,000a
59~80
a The test is performed up to 1 GHz in general. The test can be expanded up to 10 GHz by using a high frequency as necessary.