EnvironmEntal SciEncES | Climatology
System of environmental - economic
accounting for water (SEEA-W):
case study of the Nhue - Day river basin
Van Manh Lai1*, Thanh Hung Tran1, Minh Tuan Tran1
Ngoc Anh Nguyen2, Thi Minh Tra Mac3
1Institute of Strategy and Policy on Natural Resources and Environment
Ministry of Natural Resources and Enviroment of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (MONRE)
2Centre for Application and Development of Cadastral Technology, General Department of Land Administration, MONRE
3Centre for Environmental Monitoring Portal, Vietnam Environmental Administration, MONRE
Received 19 July 2017; accepted 15 November 2017
Abstract:
and especially the approach to relevant
The system of environmental - economic accounting for water (SEEA-W) is
one of efforts by international organizations to address the issue of the lack of
water related data; it provides a tool for policymakers to inform decisions in a
sustainable manner. In undertaking a pilot study of the Nhue - Day river basin,
this research demonstrates that the river basin approach is in accordance
with management institutions and available data, as well as being useful for
sustainable management of water, in Vietnam.
SEEA-W information sources [2].
Viewed from existing conditions
and potential of the framework’s
application in Vietnam, the study has
revealed that adopting a river basin
approach to SEEA-W is fundamental
to implementation of the framework at
national level. In this study, the pilot
Keywords: management of water, Nhue - Day river basin, SEEA-W.
application on the Nhue - Day river
Classification number: 6.2
basin will prove the relevance
feasibility of implementation of
and
this
approach,
while
demonstrating
it
has
certain impacts on State management on
Introduction
Water accounting is a discipline
that seeks to provide comprehensive,
consistent and comparable policy-
relevant information related to water.
Based on the experience of more than fifty
years of compiling national accounts, the
discipline that provides the elements to
calculate gross domestic product (GDP),
the United Nations Statistics Division
(UNSD) developed the System of
Environmental - Economic Accounting
for Water (SEEA-W), adopted by the
United Nations Statistical Commission
(UNSC) as a statistical standard in
2012. SEEA-W can assist policymakers
management on all users; (iv) Getting
the most value for money from investing
in infrastructure; (v) Linking water
availability and use; (vi) Making
available a standardized information
system, which is capable of harmonizing
information from different sources, is
accepted by stakeholders and is used for
the derivation of indicators; (vii) Getting
stakeholders involved in decision-
making.
Currently, over 50 countries are
developing or plan to develop SEEA-W
[1]. The application of SEEA-W will
gradually improve the quality of data
and contribute to develop sustainable
water resources. In addition, the gained
results of the pilot study will point out
the deficiencies and limitations that need
to be improved.
Methodologies
The methodologies adopted in this
research were:
(i) Desk study to review, collect data
and related information, and search for
published data sources.
(ii) Systems analysis to describe
the relationship between economic and
household activities and other problems
related to water resources in the Nhue -
Day river basin.
in making informed decisions on: (i)
policies on water resources. However,
(iii) Consultation survey of views
Allocating
water
resources
efficiently;
the applicability of the framework in
of local authorities in the Nhue - Day
(ii)
Improving
water
efficiency;
(iii)
practice is much reliant on a country’s
river basin and experts from the relevant
Understanding
the
impacts
of
water
institutional and organizational structure
backgrounds such as water resources
*Corresponding author: Email: lvmanh@isponre.gov.vn
80
Vietnam Journal of Science,
Technology and Engineering
December 2017 Vol.59 Number 4
(ISIC)
EnvironmEntal SciEncES | Climatology
planning; water pollution;
sensing and GIS professionals.
remote
Table 1. Data collection methodologies.
(iv) Statistical analysis to gather and
No
Types of data
Sources or methods to collected
process Nhue - Day river basin data.
The following table describes the main
1
Precipitation
Collected from the report of National Center for Water Resources
Planning and Investigation (NAWAPI) [3] in 2016 - Monre.
sources and methodololgies used to
collected data for Nhue - Day river basin
case study (Table 1).
2
Evaporation
Download the average evaporation map from Moderate Resolution
Imaging Spectroradiometer (MORIS) and processing for the Nhue -
Day river basin by Geographical Information System (GIS) expert.
Results and discussions
- Wastewater data was extracted from the data system of the Centre
for Environmental Monitoring Portal of the Vietnam Environment
SEEA-W framework
The framework of SEEA-W is
presented in simplified diagrammatic
form in Fig. 1, which shows the economy,
the system of water resources and their
interactions [9]. The economy and the
3
Water use and
wastewater
Administration (VEA), the website Portal managing environmental
monitoring of the Nhue - Day river basin.
- Water use was estimated according to the guide from the Decree
on drainage and wastewater treatment (article 39 - Determination of
wastewater volumes, no 80/2014/ND-CP).
- In particular, wastewater and water use for agriculture (cultivation
and livestock) was collected from data in VEA reports [4].
inland water resource system of a territory,
referred to as “territory of reference”,
which can be a country, an administrative
region, or a river basin. The given
The study only adopts COD parameters in water to compile the
emission accounts table in the Nhue - Day river basin. Due to data
restrictions, the following assumptions have been made:
(i) Wastewater after treatment meets the standards for surface water
“territory of reference” includes (i) The
inland water resource system of a territory
is composed of all water resources in
the territory (surface water, groundwater
and soil water) and the natural flows
4
Pollution parameters
in wastewater
in Vietnam at column A1; accordingly, the COD amount after
treatment remains at 0.00001 ton/m3 [5].
(ii) The ratio of treated wastewater and wastewater directly
discharged into the environment are calculated on the data of Center
for Environmental Monitoring 2017 [6]. Additionally, some ratios
are referenced by published researches [7] or the National Strategy
between and among them (absorption,
evapotranspiration, etc.) which are
on environmental protection to 2020 and the orientation towards
2030 [8].
separately reflected in the form of water
assets and volume; (ii) The economy of a
territory consists of resident water users
5
Socio-Economic
activities
From the provincial statistical yearbooks of Hoa Binh, Ha Noi, Ha
Nam, Nam Dinh, and Ninh Binh in 2015.
that abstract water for production and
consumption purposes and put in place
(Sources: authors, 2017).
the infrastructure to store, treat, distribute
and discharge water.
State agencies, enterprises, and
households play their particular roles in
Flows from environment
to economy (dotted line)
Inland water resources system and other resources
socio-economic activities in the territory
of reference. These entities act as the
producers and consumers, and use water
resources as a “sink”. In this regard,
these entities use water in different ways
by abstracting groundwater, surface
water and rainwater, and by reusing
water, etc. In the other words, economic
Flows within the
economy and
between economy
(solid line)
Imports
Of which
ISIC – 36 Collection, purification and Exports
distribution of water
Industries Households
entities can directly abstract water from
the environment to carry on activities
ISIC 37 - Sewerage
involving production and consumption
or use water without physically removing
it from the environment (recreational
uses of water). To depict the relationship
Flows from the economy
to environment
Inland water resources system and other resources
of
water-related
activities
within
the
economy, SEEA-W adopts International
Fig. 1. Detailed description of physical flows within the economy.
Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC)
(Sources: uN, SeeA-W, 2012).
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EnvironmEntal SciEncES | Climatology
to develop relevant accounting tables
Table 2. Classification of socio-economic activities in SEEA-W.
listed in Table 2 [10].
The SEEA-Waccounting framework
showing interaction between the
International System
Industry Code (ISIC)
Description of Socio - economic activities
inland water system and the economy
1-3
Agriculture, forestry and fishing
is divided
categories
and presented in the five
corresponding to these
5-33, 41-43,
Manufacturing, mining and quarrying and other industry activities
accounting tables: (i) Physical water
supply and use table (PSUT); (ii)
35
Electric power generation, transmission and distribution
Water emission accounts; (iii) Hybrid
36
Water collection, treatment and supply
accounts for economic activities and
water resources; and (iv) Asset accounts.
37
Sewerage, including treatment of wastewater
These tables reflect different aspects of
38, 39, 45-99
Services activities
water in a given period of accounting.
Two important parts of SEEA-W are
No code
Households as customer
PSUT and emission accounts. PSUT
describes water flows in physical units
(Sources: uN, SeeA-W, 2012).
(m3, million m3, etc.) to reflect water
interaction between the environment
and the economy and among industries
Direct emission
within the economy. Emission accounts
Households
seek to show the water pollutants in
the economy, the role of the entities to
To environment
reduce these pollutants though on-site
treatment, or through water treatment
facilities (ISIC 37).
ISIC 37 -
Sewerage
Reused by
economic
PSUT and emission accounts tables
Wastewater of
respectively contribute to:
- (i) Assessment and monitoring of
economic
activities (ISIC)
Direct emission
the pressure on water quantities that is
exerted by the economy; (ii) Evaluation
Fig. 2. Wastewater and associated pollution pathway.
of
alternative
options
for
reducing
(Sources: SeeA-W, 2012).
the pressure on water; (iii) Reflect
the information on water collection,
treatment, distribution, and reuse of
Table 3. Total GDP at current price of provinces in Nhue - Day river basin by
economic activities.
water by the industries; and (iv) Link
other economic information such as
ISIC
2010
2011
2013
2014
2015
value added and production yield
of each industry, to calculate useful
Total
361,877
464,685
642,032
735,801
822,582
indicators such as intensity, productivity
and efficiency of water use by industry,
1-3
43,784
56,024
63,079
65,441
70,642
emission situation, water footprint, and
5- 33, 41-43
181,285
235,740
331,451
382,602
432,358
water use in households.
- Support policy makers,
water
35
14,537
14,104
19,811
23,658
26,914
managers measure the current situation
36, 37
1,758
2,404
3,484
3,977
4,171
and control the pollutants in the water
resources (e.g. BOD, COD, nitrogen,
38, 39, 45-99
120,513
156,413
224,207
260,123
288,497
phosphorus, etc.) based on discharges of
water and pollutants into the environment
from households and economic activities
(Fig. 2 [9]).
unit: billions of VND.
(Source: extracted from the provincial statistical year books of Ha Noi [11], Ha
Nam [12], Nam Dinh [13], Ninh binh [14] and Hoa binh [15]).
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Vietnam Journal of Science,
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December 2017 Vol.59 Number 4
Environment
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