Impact of ENSO on extreme temperatures in Vietnam-Moi truong
This paper presents the results of research on the effects of ENSO to extreme temperature in Vietnam  through the frequency deviation of the occurrence extreme temperatures during ENSO and non-ENSO seasons. The results demonstrate that in an El Niño winter, the frequency of absolute maximum temperature decreased over mountainous areas of the temperature in comparison to those under the influence of a non-ENSO winter. In summer, the effects of El Niño and La Nina generally led to a reduction in the frequency of maximum temperatures in comparison to the non-ENSO condition. For minimum temperatures, the effect of El Niño winter led to a decrease in the appearance of the temperatures, while the effect of La Nina led to an increase in the appearance of this characteristic. In contrast, the effects of El Niño and La Nina led to a reduction in the frequency of minimum temperatures during summer. Generally, in both El Niño and La Nina conditions, significant changes were observed in the distribution of frequency deviation with regard to both patterns and values of seasons, in which the South obviously exhibited more changes than the North.