Drop performance test of conceptually designed control rod assembly for prototype generation iv sodium cooled fast reactor

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Drop performance test of conceptually designed control rod assembly for prototype generation iv sodium cooled fast reactor. The control rod assembly controls reactor power by adjusting its position during normal operation and shuts down chain reactions by its free drop under scram conditions. Therefore, the drop performance of the control rod assembly is important for the safety of a nuclear reactor. In this study, the drop performance of the conceptually designed control rod assembly for the prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor that is being developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a next-generation nuclear reactor was experimentally investigated.
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Drop performance test of conceptually designed control rod assembly for prototype generation iv sodium cooled fast reactor. The control rod assembly controls reactor power by adjusting its position during normal operation and shuts down chain reactions by its free drop under scram conditions. Therefore, the drop performance of the control rod assembly is important for the safety of a nuclear reactor. In this study, the drop performance of the conceptually designed control rod assembly for the prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor that is being developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a next-generation nuclear reactor was experimentally investigated..

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  1. N u c l e a r E n g i n e e r i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y 4 9 ( 2 0 1 7 ) 8 5 5 e8 6 4 Available online at ScienceDirect Nuclear Engineering and Technology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/net Technical Note Drop Performance Test of Conceptually Designed Control Rod Assembly for Prototype Generation IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Young-Kyu Lee, Jae-Han Lee, Hoe-Woong Kim, Sung-Kyun Kim, and Jong-Bum Kim* Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor NSSS Design Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353, Republic of Korea article info abstract Article history: The control rod assembly controls reactor power by adjusting its position during normal Received 5 October 2016 operation and shuts down chain reactions by its free drop under scram conditions. Received in revised form Therefore, the drop performance of the control rod assembly is important for the safety of 5 December 2016 a nuclear reactor. In this study, the drop performance of the conceptually designed control Accepted 13 December 2016 rod assembly for the prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor that is being Available online 3 January 2017 developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a next-generation nuclear reactor was experimentally investigated. For the performance test, the test facility and test Keywords: procedure were established first, and several free drop performance tests of the control rod Control Rod Assembly assembly under different flow rate conditions were then carried out. Moreover, perfor- Drop Time mance tests under several types and magnitudes of seismic loading conditions were also Drop Velocity conducted to investigate the effects of seismic loading on the drop performance of the Free Drop control rod assembly. The drop time of the conceptually designed control rod assembly for Seismic Loading 0% of the tentatively designed flow rate was measured to be 1.527 seconds, and this agrees Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor well with the analytically calculated drop time. It was also observed that the effect of seismic loading on the drop time was not significant. © 2017 Korean Nuclear Society, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/ 4.0/). 1. Introduction coolant. As an SFR reuses spent nuclear fuel from the pres- surized water reactor, it makes it possible to use uranium re- A sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is a generation IV reactor sources more efficiently and can significantly reduce nuclear that aims at enhancing the sustainability, safety, economics, waste. In many countries, including France, Russia, Japan, and proliferation resistance, and physical protection; it uses liquid India, various efforts have been made to develop and enhance sodium, which has a good heat transfer characteristic, as its the performance of an SFR [1e4]. In Korea, the prototype * Corresponding author. E-mail address: jbkim@kaeri.re.kr (J.-B. Kim). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2016.12.004 1738-5733/© 2017 Korean Nuclear Society, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  2. 856 N u c l e a r E n g i n e e r i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y 4 9 ( 2 0 1 7 ) 8 5 5 e8 6 4 generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR), for which construction is projected to occur by 2028, has been under development since 2012; specific design and corresponding demonstration tests are currently being conducted [5, 6]. The SFR uses fast neutrons with high energy for chain re- actions, and the chain reaction is controlled by the control rod assembly (CRA) activated by the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM). The CRDM adjusts the positions of the CRAs to con- trol the reactor power during normal operation and inserts CRAs into the reactor core to shut down the chain reactions under the shutdown condition. Under the scram condition, meanwhile, CRAs are quickly inserted into the reactor core by a free drop to shut down chain reactions [7]. Therefore, the drop time of the CRA is highly important for the safety of the rector and must be verified experimentally. Until now, several studies and experiments on the CRA and CRDM have been conducted to enhance the safety of the SFR. Hutter and Giorgis [8] described the design concept and operational characteristics of each component of the CRA and CRDM in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, and Rajan Babu et al [9, 10] conducted a design and verification test for the control and safety rod and control and safety rod drive mechanism in the prototype fast breeder reactor. They also suggested an analytical model for the control and safety rod under scram conditions, and compared the results with those obtained experimentally [11]. In addition, Chellapandi et al [12] analytically compared the drop time of the control and safety rod in the prototype fast breeder reactor with and without seismic loading. Meanwhile, Vijayashree et al [13e15] described important design factors for the diverse safety rod and diverse safety rod drive mechanism in the prototype fast breeder reactor, and conducted several performance tests to measure the friction force, holding current, electromagnet response time, and free fall time of the diverse safety rod. Moreover, Anandaraj et al [16, 17] measured the drop time of the diverse safety rod with respect to the temperature varia- tion in static sodium using an acoustic technique. In Korea, Lee and Koo [18e20] conceptually designed a CRDM for the PGSFR, and analytically evaluated the performance of its driving motor and electromagnet; Oh et al [21, 22] suggested a drop analysis methodology for the CRA of the PGSFR. In this study, the drop performance of the conceptually designed CRA for the PGSFR was evaluated through free drop performance tests and under seismic loading. Free drop per- formance tests were conducted to verify the drop analysis Fig. 1 e Conceptually designed control assembly of PGSFR. methodology, which has been under development for the PGSFR, prototype generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor. design of the CRA; drop time of the conceptually designed CRA was investigated. In the drop performance test under seismic loading, drop time of the CRA and the effect of seismic loading on the drop performance of the CRA were investigated under several types and magnitudes of seismic loading. Water was nose piece, and a CRA. When, under the scram condition, the used as an operating fluid instead of liquid sodium, and tests CRA drops, the hexagonal duct guides the CRA during its drop, were carried out under different flow rate conditions. and the damper with the coolant inflowing through flow holes fabricated at the bottom of the nose piece cushions the impact caused by the CRA. Therefore, the size and shape of the CRA highly affect its drop performance, and the design of the CRA 2. Free drop performance test should be carefully conducted by considering all components of the control assembly. A free drop performance test of the Fig. 1 shows the conceptually designed control assembly of conceptually designed CRA was carried out to verify the drop the PGSFR, which consists of a hexagonal duct, a damper, a analysis methodology, which has currently been under
  3. N u c l e a r E n g i n e e r i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y 4 9 ( 2 0 1 7 ) 8 5 5 e8 6 4 857 development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, As the CRA is located inside a hexagonal duct, its drop for the design of the CRA of the PGSFR. cannot be observed directly. To effectively measure the drop time of the CRA, an aluminum extension bar with a length of 2.1. Test setup 1,600 mm was additionally installed at the top of the CRA. To lift the CRA up to its drop position, at a height of 1 m, a crane The test facility for the free drop performance test of the CRA with an electromagnet was employed. Using a photo sensor is shown in Fig. 2. It consists of the conceptually designed with a resolution of 0.03 mm installed at the drop position as a control assembly, a flow loop, a control system, and a mea- position sensor for the CRA, the 1 m drop height could exactly surement system. The control assembly includes a hexagonal be maintained during the tests. Once the CRA was lifted up to duct, a damper, a nose piece, and a full-sized conceptually its drop position, it was then dropped by cutting off the cur- designed CRA, the weight of which is 48 kg, as shown in Fig. 1. rent flowing into the electromagnet. The overall size of the facility is 4.5 m  6.3 m  11.4 m The high-speed camera system, consisting of a high-speed (length  width  height), and it has three floors. On the top camera (Phantom V310; Vision Research at Wayne, NJ, USA), a floor, control and measurement systems including a crane, a controller equipped with a data acquisition board, measure- control panel, and a high-speed camera system were ment and analysis software, and a lamp were used to measure installed, whereas the flow loop, consisting of a water tank, a the drop time of the CRA. It was possible to set up all functions pump, a flowmeter, and pipes, was installed on the bottom of the high-speed camera, such as the resolution and shooting floor. speed, using measurement software (PCC 2.3; Vision Fig. 2 e Free drop performance test facility.
  4. 858 N u c l e a r E n g i n e e r i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y 4 9 ( 2 0 1 7 ) 8 5 5 e8 6 4 Research). During the test, the shooting speed of the camera was 1,000 f/s, and the measurement of the high-speed camera was initiated when the switch-off signal of the electromagnet was input into the measurement software as a trigger signal. Using images obtained by the high-speed camera and saved by the measurement software, the analysis software (TEMA 3.8-008; Image Systems AB at Linkoping, Sweden) traces the target marked at the extension bar in each image. As the analysis software distinguishes the target from the back- ground image using the contrast in brightness between them, a target with a black dot and a white background was marked at the upper part of the extension bar. To reduce any mea- Fig. 3 e Position and drop velocity of the CRA surement errors, the high-speed camera was located at the corresponding to the drop time. CRA, control rod assembly. center of the drop height and its level was maintained. To investigate the effect of the flow rate on the drop per- Fig. 4 shows the positions of the CRA corresponding to the formance of the CRA, several tests were conducted at different drop time under different flow rate conditions. From Fig. 4, flow rates that were 0%, 100%, and 200% of the tentatively one can see that the drop time of the CRA increases as the flow designed flow rate (0.46 kg/s). The test was carried out five rate increases. This is because the drag force caused by water times for each flow rate condition, and the measured drop inflows through the CRA itself and the gap between the CRA times of the CRA were averaged. Water with a density and and the hexagonal duct increases as the flow rate increases. viscosity larger than those of liquid sodium was used as the The drop velocities of the CRA corresponding to the drop time operating fluid; densities and viscosities of both water and under the given flow rate conditions are shown in Fig. 5. liquid sodium corresponding to the temperature are listed in Owing to the increment of the drag force, one can clearly see Table 1 [23]. Here, the drop time of the CRA may increase in a that the drop velocity of the CRA decreases as the flow rate dense and viscous fluid so that the use of water as an oper- increases. The measured total drop times, delay times, drop ating fluid gives more conservative results, as expected, and times, and maximum drop velocities of the CRA under the as shown in the studies by Rajan Babu et al [11], and given flow rate conditions are listed in Table 2. It should be Vijayashree et al [14, 15]. In addition, one of main objectives of noted that the drop time of the conceptually designed CRA the current experiments is to compare the drop test results of under the 0% flow rate condition was measured and found to the conceptually designed CRA in water with those from drop be 1.527 seconds; this agrees well with the analytical results analysis in the same fluid, in order to validate the drop anal- (1.47 seconds [21]), with an error of < 4%. ysis methodology. Therefore, the drop test of the CRA was Effects of the damper on the drop performance of the CRA performed in water instead of sodium in this study. are shown in Fig. 6, which indicates the positions of the CRA according to the drop time under the 0% flow rate condition. 2.2. Test results The dotted line indicates the estimated position of the CRA without the damper, whereas the solid line indicates the Fig. 3 shows the position and drop velocity of the CRA corre- measured position of the CRA with the damper. The estimated sponding to the drop time measured under the 0% flow rate position was calculated based on the slope when the CRA has condition. The total drop time of the CRA is divided into the a constant drop velocity before it meets the damper. As delay time (tdelay) caused by the remnant magnetization of the mentioned above, the damper decreases the drop velocity of electromagnet and the drop time of the CRA (tdrop). As an the CRA to reduce its impact. Thus, the drop time of the CRA electromagnet is used to hold the CRA before its drop, the increases, but the effect of the conceptually designed damper remnant magnetization is generated just after cutting off the is not significant; the delay times caused by the damper are current flowing into the electromagnet, which delays the drop about 0.03e0.04 seconds for the given flow rate conditions. of the CRA. Meanwhile, the drop velocity of the CRA increases up to a certain value owing to the equilibrium between gravity and the drag force, and is maintained until the CRA meets the damper. The drop velocity then dramatically decreases and is maintained until the CRA stops. Table 1 e Material properties of water and liquid sodium. Material Temperature Density Viscosity (K) (kg/m3) (Pa$sec) Water 303 996 0.000799 Liquid 400 919 0.000599 sodium 500 897 0.000415 600 874 0.000321 Fig. 4 e Positions of the CRA corresponding to drop time 700 852 0.000264 under 0%, 100%, and 200% flow rate conditions. CRA, 800 828 0.000227 control rod assembly.
  5. N u c l e a r E n g i n e e r i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y 4 9 ( 2 0 1 7 ) 8 5 5 e8 6 4 859 Fig. 5 e Drop velocities of the CRA corresponding to drop Fig. 6 e Measured and estimated positions of the CRA time under 0%, 100%, and 200% flow rate conditions. CRA, corresponding to drop time under 0% flow rate condition. control rod assembly. CRA, control rod assembly. photo sensors with a resolution of 0.03 mm were employed to 3. Free drop performance test under seismic measure the total drop time of the CRA. A total of 18 photo loading sensors were installed at specific locations between 0 mm and 1,000 mm. Moreover, a specially designed electric circuit [24, Under a scram condition such as an earthquake, the CRA should 25] was used to measure the delay time caused by the be quickly inserted into the reactor core by its free drop to shut remnant magnetization of the electromagnet, and the drop down chain reactions. For the safety of the reactor, therefore, time of the CRA was calculated by subtracting the delay time the drop time of the CRA should be almost unaffected by such from the total drop time. Although the photo sensors can give scram conditions, and this lack of influence of the scram con- the total drop time and 18 specific positions of the CRA, the ditions on the CRA should be experimentally demonstrated. To number of measured data is insufficient to obtain a clear this end, free drop performance tests of the CRA under several relation between the position and the drop time of the CRA. To seismic loadings were carried out to investigate the effect of make continuous measurement of the position of the CRA seismic loading on the drop time of the CRA. during its drop, a wire displacement meter was therefore additionally employed. 3.1. Test setup The operating fluid was water, and the same flow rate conditions as those mentioned in Section 2, 0%, 100%, and Fig. 7 shows the test facility for the free drop performance test of the CRA under seismic loading. A supporting structure for the test section, designed to protect it from accidents caused by the given seismic loadings, was newly constructed on a six- degree-of-freedom shaking table that has a capacity of 300 kN; this table can simulate a large-magnitude earthquake. The test facility has a control system and flow loop similar to those in the facility mentioned in Section 2, but has additional equipment to protect it from the large displacement caused by the given seismic loadings. First, a pneumatic device was newly employed to prevent any individual vibration of the electromagnet holding the CRA, as well as to lift the CRA to its drop position. Second, for the free drop performance test mentioned in Section 2, the flow loop has a configuration identical to that of the test facility, but flexible hoses were used instead of pipes to protect it from any breakage under seismic loading. As a high-speed camera cannot be used under seismic loading, which makes a large displacement of the facility, Table 2 e Free drop performance test results. Flow rate Total drop Delay time Drop time Max. drop condition time (sec) (sec) velocity (%) (sec) (m/sec) 0 1.966 0.439 1.527 0.759 100 1.996 0.397 1.599 0.714 Fig. 7 e Free drop performance test facility for seismic 200 2.087 0.411 1.676 0.670 loading. DOF, degree of freedom.
  6. 860 N u c l e a r E n g i n e e r i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y 4 9 ( 2 0 1 7 ) 8 5 5 e8 6 4 200% of the tentatively designed flow rate, were considered for the performance test. In addition, several tests with and without seismic loading were carried out for each flow rate condition. It should be noted that free drop tests without seismic loading, i.e., the static condition, were conducted to compensate for the effect of the modification of the test fa- cility. Under the given flow rate conditions, the CRA was lifted to its drop position by the pneumatic device, and seismic loading was applied using the shaking table. The CRA was then dropped by cutting off the current flowing into the electromagnet. The El Centro earthquake time history and soil response time history were used as seismic loadings, and the acceleration signals are shown in Fig. 8. Magnitudes of the applied El Centro earthquake time history were 0.1g and 0.3g, whereas those of soil response time history were 0.1g, 0.3g, and 0.5g. It should be noted that the 0.5g El Centro earthquake time history was not applied because the corresponding displacement is too large to simulate using the current shaking table. During the tests, the top of the hexagonal duct of the control assembly was clamped to prevent any accident caused by the large displacement under the seismic loading condition. However, the top of the hexagonal duct of the control assembly would not be clamped in a real situation. To simulate such a real situation, therefore, additional tests applying a sine wave with a frequency of 2 Hz and a displacement of 20 mm as seismic loading were also con- ducted without the clamping of the hexagonal duct. 3.2. Test results Fig. 9A shows the drop time of the CRA measured by photo sensors installed at specific locations between 0 mm and 1,000 mm. The first image at the top left in Fig. 9A indicates the starting time of the drop, whereas the last image at the bottom right indicates the total drop time of the CRA. The drop time of the CRA can be calculated by subtracting the delay time Fig. 9 e Total drop and delay times of the CRA under 0% flow rate conditions under 0.3g SRTH seismic loading. (A) Total drop time measured by photo sensors. (B) Delay time measured by electric circuit. CRA, control rod assembly; SRTH, soil response time history. caused by the remnant magnetization of the electromagnet, as shown in Fig. 9B, from the total drop time. The test results obtained under the 0% flow rate conditions are shown in Fig. 10. From Fig. 10, one can see that the drop times of the CRA under seismic loading are slightly larger than the drop time under the static condition. The largest drop time of the CRA under seismic loading is 1.59 seconds, whereas the drop time of the CRA under the static condition is 1.56 sec- Fig. 8 e Acceleration signals of El Centro earthquake and onds. From these results, one can also see that the type and SRTH. SRTH, soil response time history. magnitude of seismic loading barely affect the drop time of
  7. N u c l e a r E n g i n e e r i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y 4 9 ( 2 0 1 7 ) 8 5 5 e8 6 4 861 Table 3 e Free drop performance test results under seismic loading under 0% flow rate conditions. Test ID Total drop Delay Drop time (sec) time (sec) time (sec) Static test 1.99 0.43 1.56 0.1g El Centro 1.90 0.32 1.58 0.3g El Centro 1.94 0.35 1.59 0.1g SRTH 1.90 0.31 1.59 0.3g SRTH 1.92 0.33 1.59 0.5g SRTH 1.94 0.35 1.59 Sine wave 1.73 0.15 1.58 SRTH, soil response time history. Fig. 10 e Positions of the CRA corresponding to drop time under 0% flow rate conditions under seismic loading. CRA, control rod assembly; SRTH, soil response time history. the CRA. In particular, almost identical results were obtained under the same types of seismic loadings even for different magnitudes. The measured total drop times, delay times, and drop times of the CRA under the given seismic loadings under the 0% flow rate conditions are listed in Table 3. It should be noted that the measured delay time under the sine wave condition is relatively small because the hexagonal duct is not clamped, unlike the other cases. Fig. 11 shows the test results obtained under the 100% flow Fig. 11 e Positions of the CRA corresponding to drop time rate conditions. From the results, one can see that the drop under 100% flow rate conditions under seismic loading. time of the CRA slightly increases compared with those ob- CRA, control rod assembly; SRTH, soil response time tained under the 0% flow rate conditions. In addition, one can history.
  8. 862 N u c l e a r E n g i n e e r i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y 4 9 ( 2 0 1 7 ) 8 5 5 e8 6 4 also see that the effects of the type and magnitude of the given seismic loadings on the drop time are not significant. Unlike Table 4 e Free drop performance test results under seismic loading under 100% flow rate conditions. the results in Fig. 10, however, the drop time of the CRA seems to be nearly conserved even under the seismic loading con- Test ID Total drop Delay Drop ditions, although it slightly increases for a few cases, such as time (sec) time (sec) time (sec) 0.5g soil response time history and sine wave loading condi- Static test 2.04 0.41 1.63 tions. In addition, similar results were obtained under the 0.1g El Centro 2.04 0.42 1.62 0.3g El Centro 2.02 0.38 1.64 200% flow rate conditions, as shown in Fig. 12. The measured 0.1g SRTH 2.03 0.39 1.64 total drop times, delay times, and drop times of the CRA under 0.3g SRTH 2.01 0.38 1.63 the given seismic loadings under the 100% and 200% flow rate 0.5g SRTH 2.01 0.35 1.66 conditions are listed in Tables 4 and 5, respectively. Sine wave 1.83 0.17 1.66 SRTH, soil response time history. Table 5 e Free drop performance test results under seismic loading under 200% flow rate conditions. Test ID Total drop Delay Drop time (sec) time (sec) time (sec) Static test 2.11 0.38 1.73 0.1g El Centro 2.11 0.40 1.71 0.3g El Centro 2.11 0.39 1.72 0.1g SRTH 2.13 0.42 1.71 0.3g SRTH 2.13 0.42 1.71 0.5g SRTH 2.12 0.41 1.71 Sine wave 2.04 0.28 1.76 SRTH, soil response time history. 4. Discussion and conclusion For the safe operation of the SFR, the drop performance of the CRA, which controls the reactor power during normal opera- tion and shuts down chain reactions under scram conditions, is important and must be verified. In this study, a test facility and a test procedure for the drop performance test of the CRA have been established, and the free drop performance of the conceptually designed CRA for the PGSFR was experimentally investigated. For the free drop performance test, a high-speed camera system with a shooting speed of 1,000 f/s was employed to measure the drop time of the CRA, whereas 18 photo sensors and a specially designed electric circuit were employed under the seismic loading conditions. In addition, the switch-off signal of the electromagnet was used as the trigger signal for the measurement software to measure the drop time of the CRA more accurately without any effect of the remnant magnetization of the electromagnet. In the free drop performance test, the drop time of the conceptually designed CRA under the 0% flow rate conditions was measured and found to be 1.527 seconds, which agrees well with the analytical result (1.47 seconds), with an error of < 4%; this value of the drop time increased as the flow rate increased, while the drop velocity decreased because of the increase in the drag force. Meanwhile, the drop velocity under the given flow rate conditions increased until the CRA met the Fig. 12 e Positions of the CRA corresponding to drop time damper, and then decreased rapidly. However, the effect of under 200% flow rate conditions under seismic loading. the conceptually designed damper was insignificant. From CRA, control rod assembly; SRTH, soil response time these results, therefore, the necessity of the performance history. enhancement of the damper comes to the fore, and
  9. N u c l e a r E n g i n e e r i n g a n d T e c h n o l o g y 4 9 ( 2 0 1 7 ) 8 5 5 e8 6 4 863 corresponding design modification is currently being con- [9] V. Rajan Babu, R. Veerasamy, D. Rangaswamy, K. Narayanan, ducted. Under the seismic loading conditions, the drop per- S.C.S. Pavan Kumar, S.K. Dash, C. Meikandamurthy, formance of the CRA showed different characteristics. The K.K. Rajan, M. Rajan, P. Puthiyavinayagam, P. Chellapandi, G. Vaidyanathan, S.C. Chetal, Design and qualification of drop time of the CRA seemed to be almost entirely conserved control & safety rod and its drive mechanism of fast breeder regardless of the type and magnitude of the applied seismic reactor, ICONE14e89167, 2006. loadings under the 100% and 200% flow rate conditions, [10] V. Rajan Babu, R. Veerasamy, S. Patri, S. Ignatius Sundar Raj, whereas this drop time increased slightly under the seismic S.C.S.P. Kumar Krovvidi, S.K. Dash, C. Meikandamurthy, loading condition under the 0% flow rate conditions. This K.K. Rajan, P. Puthiyavinayagam, P. Chellapandi, phenomenon might be attributable to the combination of the G. Vaidyanathan, S.C. Chetal, Testing and qualification of drag force caused by the flow and the applied seismic loading. control & safety rod and its drive mechanism of fast breeder reactor, Nucl. Eng. Des. 240 (2010) 1728e1738. The obtained test results were used as base data for the [11] V. Rajan Babu, G. Thanigaiyarasu, P. Chellapandi, verification of the drop analysis methodology that has been Mathematical modeling of performance of safety rod and its under development for the design of the CRA of the PGSFR; the drive mechanism in sodium-cooled fast reactor during further drop performance test of the finally designed CRA will scram action, Nucl. Eng. Des. 278 (2014) 601e617. be carried out using the established test facility and [12] P. Chellapandi, V. Rajan Babu, S.C. Chetal, B. Raj, procedures. Performance evaluation of control & safety rod and its drive mechanism of fast breeder reactor during seismic event, ICONE14e89340, 2006. [13] R. Vijayashree, P. Chellapandi, K. Natesan, S. Jalaldeen, Conflicts of interest S.C. Chetal, B. Raj, Design and development of diverse safety rod and its drive mechanism for PFBR, ICONE17e75851, 2009. None. [14] R. Vijayashree, R. Veerasamy, S. Patri, S. Suresh Kumar, S.C.S.P. Kumar Krovvidi, S.K. Dash, T. Logaiyan, Acknowledgments N. Ravichandran, S. Chandramouli, K.K. Rajan, I. Banerjee, R. Dhanasekaran, Testing and qualification of diverse safety This work was supported by the Nuclear Research & Devel- rod and its drive mechanism for PFBR, ICONE17e75853, 2009. opment Program of the National Research Foundation with a [15] R. Vijayashree, R. Veerasamy, S. Patri, P. Chellapandi, G. Vaidyanathan, S.C. Chetal, B. 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