Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Leadership Chapter 14 – Culture and Leadership Northouse, 5th edition Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Overview Culture and Leadership Description Culture Defined Related Concepts Dimensions of Culture Clusters of World Cultures Characteristics of Clusters Leadership Behavior & Culture Clusters Universally Desirable & Undesirable Leadership Attributes Culture and Leadership Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Culture & Leadership Description Perspective Culture & Leadership – focuses on a collection of related ideas rather than a single unified theory Globalization – – Increased after World War II – Increased interdependence between nations Economic, social, technical, political – Has created many challenges Need to design multinational organizations Identify and select leaders for these organizations Manage organizations with culturally diverse employees Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Culture & Leadership Description Perspective Globalization has created a need – – to understand how cultural differences affect leadership performance – for leaders to become competent in cross-cultural awareness and practice Five cross-cultural competencies for Leaders (Adler & Bartholomew, 1992) 1. Understand business, political, & cultural environments worldwide 2. Learn the perspectives, tastes, trends & technologies of many cultures Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Culture & Leadership Description Perspective Five cross-cultural competencies for Leaders (Adler & Bartholomew, 1992), cont’d. 3. Be able to work simultaneously with people from many cultures 4. Be able to adapt to living & communicating in other cultures 5. Need to learn to relate to people from other cultures from a position of equality rather than superiority Global leaders need to – – be skilled in creating transcultural visions – develop communication competencies to implement these visions Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Culture Defined Culture: – learned beliefs, values, rules, norms, symbols & traditions that are common to a group of people – shared qualities of a group that make them unique – is the way of life, customs, & scripts of a group of people Terms related to culture – – Multicultural – approach or system that takes more than one culture into account – Diversity – existence of different cultures or ethnicities within a group or organization Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Related Concepts Ethnocentrism – – The tendency for individuals to place their own group (ethnic, racial, or cultural) at the center of their observations of the world – Perception that one’s own culture is better or more natural than other cultures – Is a universal tendency and each of us is ethnocentric to some degree Ethnocentrism can be a major obstacle to effective leadership – Prevents people from understanding or respecting other cultures Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Related Concepts Prejudice – – a largely fixed attitude, belief, or emotion held by an individual about another individual or group based on faulty or unsubstantiated data – Involves inflexible generalizations that are resistant to change or evidence – Is self-oriented rather than other-oriented Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Related Concepts Prejudice, cont’d. – – Leaders face the challenge of dealing with their own prejudices and those of followers Can be toward the leader or leader’s culture Can face followers who represent culturally different groups and they may have their own prejudices toward each other – A skilled leader needs to find ways to negotiate with followers from various cultural backgrounds Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Dimensions of Culture Research Research focused on various dimensions of culture in the past 30 years – – Hall (1976) reported that a primary characteristic of cultures is degree of focus – on the individual (individualistic) or on the group (collectivistic) – Trompenaars (1994) classified an organizations culture into 2 dimensions: Egalitarian-hierarchical - degree to which cultures exhibit shared power vs. hierarchical power Person-task orientation - extent to which cultures emphasize human interaction vs. focusing on tasks – Hofstede (1980, 2001) benchmark research identified 5 major dimensions on which cultures differ Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Dimensions of Culture Research House et al’s (2004) research on the relationship between culture and leadership resulted in the GLOBE research program – Initiated in 1991 – this program involved more than 160 investigators – Used quantitative methods to study the responses of 17,000 managers in more than 950 organizations, 62 different cultures – Developed a classification of cultural dimensions – identified nine cultural dimensions Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Dimensions of Culture Research GLOBE research program – nine cultural dimensions – Uncertainty Avoidance: extent to which a society, organization, or group relies on established social norms, rituals, and procedures to avoid uncertainty – Power Distance: degree to which members of a group expect and agree that power should be shared unequally – Institutional Collectivism: degree to which an organization or society encourages institutional or societal collective action. Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Dimensions of Culture Research GLOBE research program – nine cultural dimensions – In-Group Collectivism: degree to which people express pride, loyalty, and cohesiveness in their organizations or families – Gender Egalitarianism: degree to which an organization or society minimizes gender role differences and promotes gender equality – Assertiveness: degree to which people in a culture are determined, assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in their social relationships Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Dimensions of Culture Research GLOBE research program – nine cultural dimensions – Future Orientation: extent to which people engage in future-oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification – Performance Orientation: extent to which an organization or society encourages and rewards group members for improved performance and excellence – Humane Orientation: degree to which a culture encourages and rewards people for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring, and kind to others. Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Clusters of World Cultures GLOBE researchers divided the data from 62 countries into regional clusters – Clusters provide a convenient way to Analyze similarities & differences between cultural groups Make meaningful generalizations about culture & leadership – Clusters were found to be unique – Regional clusters represent 10 distinct groups Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Clusters of World Cultures Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Characteristics of Clusters GLOBE research analyzed data on each of the regions using the dimensions of culture – Results found regional clusters that were significantly higher or lower on particular dimensions – From this data, several observations can be made about the characteristics of these regional cultures Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Characteristics of Clusters Observations Characteristics include - Anglo – competitive and result-oriented Confucian Asia – result-driven, encourage group working together over individual goals Eastern Europe – forceful, supportive of co-workers, treat women with equality Germanic Europe – value competition & aggressiveness and are more result-oriented Latin America – loyal & devoted to their families and similar groups Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Characteristics of Clusters Observations Characteristics include - Latin Europe – value individual autonomy Middle East – devoted & loyal to their own people, women afforded less status Nordic Europe – high priority on long-term success, women treated with greater equality Southern Asia – strong family & deep concern for their communities Sub-Sahara Africa – concerned & sensitive to others, demonstrate strong family loyalty Chapter 13 - Culture and Leadership Leadership Behavior & Culture Clusters GLOBE project – overall purpose: – Research how differences in culture are related to differences in approaches to leadership – How different cultures view leadership behavior in others Research identified six global leadership behaviors