Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Leadership Chapter 11 – Psychodynamic Approach Northouse, 4th edition Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Overview Psychodynamic Approach Perspective Psychodynamic Approach Background Eric Berne & Transactional Analysis Sigmund Freud & Personality Types Carl Jung & Personality Types Sixteen Types and Leadership Dealing With Followers How Does the Psychodynamic Approach Work? Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamic Approach Description One fundamental concept underlies this approach: personality – A consistent pattern of ways of thinking, feeling, & acting – Affected by the environment, including people – Characterized by tendencies or qualities a person may be shy, intelligent, & rigid in behavior another person creative independent, & spontaneous Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamic Approach Description Psychodynamic vs. Trait, Style & Situational Approaches Trait approach – characteristics are important to leadership status and tasks Style approach – certain behavior = best style, ex. team management (9,9) Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamic Approach Description Psychodynamic vs. Trait, Style & Situational Approaches Situational approach – key element is match between leader’s style/behaviors & needs of subordinate Psychodynamic approach – important: personality types – various personality types are better suited to leadership positions or situations Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamic Approach Description Function of leader – To become aware of their own personality type and the personalities of followers Underlying assumptions – Personality characteristics of individuals are deeply ingrained and virtually impossible to change in any significant way Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamic Approach Description Underlying assumptions – People have motives & feelings that are unconscious – Person’s behavior results from observable actions, responses AND from emotional effects of past experience Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamic Approach Background Emergence of this approach to leadership – Roots in work of Sigmund Freud – psychoanalysis – Carl Jung – disciple of Freud’s developed own body of psychological work – Includes work developed by Eric Berne on the concept of the ego state as part of the larger method called transactional analysis Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis – A unified system of individual and social psychiatry – Focuses on the individual but also one’s relationship to others Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis – People have three ego states: parent, adult, child Parent: when a person thinks, feels & behaves in ways copied from his/her parents Child: thinking, feeling, behaving as one did as a child Adult: thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that are a direct result of current happenings – Key point: people shift in & out of the 3 ego states Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis – further development – Parent & child ego states subdivided Parent state: controlling or nurturing Child state: free child (FC) or adapted child (AC) • AC – a person conforms & adapts to demands of others • FC – a person acts & feels like an uninhibited & unsocialized child Adult state: current self Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis – further development – Ego state is not the same as personality – TA & personality = Egogram created by a person shows their relative frequency in each ego state Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis CP = critical parent NP = nurturing parent A = adult FC = free child AC = adapted child Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis occurs when the ego states of 2 people interacting is assessed – Complimentary interaction: one person in a nurturing parent ego state other person in their adaptive child ego state Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis occurs when the ego states of 2 people interacting is assessed, cont’d. – Crossed transaction: A leader in the adult ego state deals with A subordinate who responds from their free child ego state with somewhat negative, rejecting input from the leader Effective leadership & followership depend on – Two or more people operating in the adult ego state Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis For a leader-follower dyad, the following complementary transactions could occur: Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis For a leader-follower dyad, there are a number of possible crossed transactions: Chapter 11 - Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud & Personality Types Core personality – Is inborn and instinctual – Values, attitudes, beliefs overlaid on core personality Three personality types – Erotic – Obsessive – Narcissist