Lecture note Government and not-for-profit accounting: Concepts and practices (7/e) – Chapter 15: Managing for results

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Lecture note Government and not-for-profit accounting: Concepts and practices (7/e) – Chapter 15: Managing for results. Chapter 15 - Managing for results. In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Roles of accountants in the management of governmental and not-for-profit organizations; how program budgets overcome limitations of traditional object-classification budgets; the need for, and characteristics of, sound operational objectives;…
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Lecture note Government and not-for-profit accounting: Concepts and practices (7/e) – Chapter 15: Managing for results. Chapter 15 - Managing for results. In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Roles of accountants in the management of governmental and not-for-profit organizations; how program budgets overcome limitations of traditional object-classification budgets; the need for, and characteristics of, sound operational objectives;….

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Click icon to add picture Chapter 15 Managing for Results Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 | 1 All rights reserved. Learning Objectives Roles of accountants in the management of governmental and not-for-profit organizations How program budgets overcome limitations of traditional object-classification budgets The need for, and characteristics of, sound operational objectives Risks of establishing explicit organizational objectives Ways in which program budgets link expenditures to objectives Advantages and disadvantages of program budgets Why it’s important to develop and report measures of service effects and accomplishments Special problems governments and NFPs face in planning and budgeting capital expenditures Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 | 2 All rights reserved. Role of Accountants They play multiple roles in entity’s management. There are 4 phases to the process: 1. When social problems arise: area specialists o Collect and analyze budgetary and financial information o Compare potential costs and benefits o Accountants can make valuable contribution to this phase. Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 | 3 All rights reserved. Role of Accountants (cont’d) 2. When policy-makers select among the options presented to them: -Accountants have less to contribute in this phase. 3. When programs are administered by appropriate agencies: -Accountants actively involve in establishing plans, operating budgets, controlling costs, preparing financial and other operating reports. 4. When programs are audited: o Assessed by audit teams where accountants play a vital role. o The teams also include statisticians, economists, and other specialists. Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 | 4 All rights reserved. Limitations of Traditional Budgets Budget: ois the most significant of financial documents Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. of Chapter 15 | 5 Characteristics of Operational Objectives Operational objectives: Are the basis for allocating resources, managing day-to-day activities. Are not the means to achieve organization’s goals. Instead, they represent the outcomes. Should be precise, doable and measurable. Generally includes multiple objectives. The central theme of recent management literature. This suggests that organizations should be ‘mission’ driven rather than ‘rules’ driven. Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 | 6 All rights reserved. Adverse Consequences Operational objectives: May give rise to conflict Risk of alienating organization’s constituents May result in dysfunctional behavior Employees may target their efforts toward improving what will be measured rather than what may be beneficial to the organization. Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 | 7 All rights reserved. Performance Budgets Relate expenditures to operational objectives. Used instead of, or as a supplement to the traditional object classification budgets. Program budgets: • Common type of performance budgets • Allocate funds by program and not by objects • Ex. Funds appropriated for fire prevention programs, health programs, for public safety programs etc. Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 | 8 All rights reserved. Performance Budgets (cont’d) • Composed of activities directed toward a common goal. • Generally carried out within a single organizational unit • May also cut across departments. • Zero-base budgeting (ZBB): • one variant of program budgeting • Requires explicit decisions and judgments • Mandates that both current and proposed activities be subject to common review. Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 | 9 All rights reserved. Focus onActivities Expenditures are mostly classified based on object and fund. They should also be broken down by activities. Ex: Highland Hills Assistance League maintains the following programs: • Employment skills, Housing rehabilitation, and Teen substance abuse Following are examples of activities in the employment skills programs: • Job-seeking skills, Computer training, Electronics training, and Day care Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 | 10 All rights reserved. Review and Ranking Once requests for funding have been prepared, they must be reviewed and ranked. Sometimes, individual units establish criteria on how to rank the funding proposals. Some organizations establish uniform guidelines for their units. Organizations give prioritize to activities that will advance a particular phase of its mission. Granof, et al. – 7th edition For instance, High© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. League may giv Chapter 15 | 11 Advantages of Program Budgeting Directly relates expenditures to objectives Considers alternative means of achieving the same objective Promotes analysis of behavior of costs Encourages Periodic review of programs and activities to ensure that they are consistent with the organization’s objectives. Granof, et al. – 7th edition © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 | 12 All rights reserved. Disadvantages of Program Budgeting Organizational objectives may provoke conflict.

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