Preparation and microstructure of acetate based lead free BSZT ferroelectric thin films using sol gel technique

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Preparation and microstructure of acetate based lead free BSZT ferroelectric thin films using sol gel technique. (Ba0.85Sr0.15)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 (BSZT) lead-free ferroelectric thin films at the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) were successfully deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si using a modified spin-coated sol-gel method. Microstructure and electrical properties of the thin film were studied.
VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics Physics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (2019) 55-61
Original article
Preparation and Microstructure of Acetate-based Lead-free
BSZT Ferroelectric Thin Films Using Sol-gel Technique
Pham Thi Nguyet1, Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong1,2, Vu Thu Hien1,*, Vu Ngoc Hung1
1International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS),
Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam
2College of industry and trade, 1, Chua Cam, Trung Nhi, Phuc Yen, Vinh Phuc Vietnam
Received 15 January 2019
Revised 04 March 2019; Accepted 15 March 2019
Abstract: (Ba0.85Sr0.15)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 (BSZT) lead-free ferroelectric thin films at the vicinity of the
morphotropic phase boundary(MPB) were successfully deposited onPt/Ti/SiO2/Si usinga modified
spin-coated sol-gel method. Microstructure and electrical properties of the thin film were studied.
High resolution synchrotron Xray powder diffraction (SXRD) combined with Rietveld refinement
revealed that the samples were crystalized in tetragonal perovskite structure with in-plane symmetry
(c<a).
Raman
spectra
also
confirmed
a
tetragonal
perovskite
crystalline
lattice
structure.
Polarisation studies demonstrate that BSZT films exhibit a rather high saturation polarisation of
22.25 µC.cm−2. Leakage current behaviour was obtained and possible conduction mechanism is
discussed.
Keywords: xBST-(1-x)BZT ferroelectric materials, thin film technology, sol-gel.
1. Introduction
Ferroelectric materials have a unique combination of properties such as spontaneity, a switchable
polarisation, piezoelectricity, and pyroelectricity. Therefore, such materials have been extensively
studied for many applications, including non-volatile random access memories (NVRAMs), dynamic
randomaccessmemories(DRAMs), high-frequency(GHz)bypass capacitors,infrared detectors,aswell
as tunable devices in microwave electronics [1, 2]. Lead zirconate titanate PZT has been long time the
leading commercial
material
for
actuators,
sensors,
and
transducer
devices
due
to its
excellent
piezoelectric properties in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the
________
Corresponding author.
https//doi.org/ 10.25073/2588-1124/vnumap.4316
55
56
P.T. Nguyet et al. / VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics Physics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (2019) 55-61
rhombohedral and tetragonal phases [3]. However, the wide utilization of PZT has increased serious
environmental and health concerns due to the toxicity of lead element during the manufacture, and
recycling of these devices. Therefore, it is highly desirable to search for lead-free alternative materials
for these applications [4]. In the recent years, there have been surged to study and develop lead-free
ferroelectric ceramics, which include BaTiO3BTO, BiFeO3 (BFO) Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 K0.5Bi0.5TiO3
(NKBT), Na0.5K0.5NbO3 (KNN), etc [5]. However, the main drawback of these materials is the presence
of highly volatile elements, such as Na, Bi and K. In consequence, those materials are often difficult to
prepareintheprecisestoichiometry. It then makestheirferroelectricityorpiezoelectricityisinferiorto PZT.
Many previous researches show that by suitable doping engineering both at Ba2+ or/and Ti4+ sites
in BTO with either equipollent or aliovalent metals, one can enhance significantly the dielectric,
ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. The strong improvement in piezoelectric effect is attributed to
a phase coexistence (rhombohedral and tetragonal) MPB composition starting at the triple point
(tetragonalcubicrhombohedral), which results in a very low energy barrier for polarisation rotation
and lattice distortion [6].This research led to worldwide attention on lead-free (1 - x)[Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3
x(Ba0.3Ca0.7)TiO3] ceramics for various applications.
In this work, we report the preparation of (Ba0.85Sr0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3(BSZT) sample via sol-gel
route, their microstructure and electrical properties. BSZT thin films (~225 nm) were deposited on
conductive Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates followed by annealing at 650 °C. The crystalline structure (with its
space group), room-temperature hysteresis (PE) measurements and leakage current behaviour of these
films were studied.
2. Experiments
2.1. BSZT Sol preparation
Barium
acetate
Ba(CH3COO)2,
strontium
acetate
Sr(CH3COO)2,
zirconium
n-propoxide
Zr(OC3H7)4
and isopropoxide titanate Ti(OC3H7)4 were used as starting materials. Acetic acid
CH3COOH and 2-methoxyethanol CH3OCH2CH2OH were selected as solvents, formamide NH2CHO
as additives and acetylacetone CH3COCH2COCH3 as reagent to stabilize the solution.
First, barium acetate and strontium acetate 99.95% (p.a Sigma Aldrich) were dissolved in glacial
acetic acid and 2-methoxylethanol at 120 oC for 4 h. Acetylacetone was used to stabilize isopropoxide
titanate and zirconium n-propoxide, and then the modified precursor was added to the above solution
with constant rate stirring at room temperature. To adjust viscosity, surface tension of the precursor,
formamide was added to the solution under ultrasonic agitation. pH value was adjusted using glacial
acetic acid to remain 24. The resultant solution was filtered to form the stock solution. The solution
was yellow, clear and transparent and stabilize for several months.
BSZT thin film depostion characterization
Above mentioned solution was then spin-coated on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at 3000 rpm for 30
s. The as-deposited BSZT thin films were heated by a four-step heating procedure: first heated at a low
temperature of 150 oC for 10 min to dry the gel; then pyrolyzed at 350 oC in air for 15 min; the films
were crystallized at about 650 oC by rapid annealing (flowing rate was 50 oC/min) for 30 min. To gain
the crack-free films, an additional pre-annealing was used at 550 oC before rapid thermal annealing. The
additional step is useful to eliminate the crack phenomenon owing to the shrinkage of thin films
fabricated by the sol-gel.
P.T. Nguyet et al. / VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics Physics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (2019) 55-61
57
2.2. Microstructural and electrical measurements
Characterization ofthe crystalline structure of BSZT powders was carried out usingSynchrotron X
ray diffraction (SXRD) at Beamline SAXS of the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Thailand). A
data processing software SAXSIT was used to process the 2D scattering patterns for further analyses.
The diffraction data were analyzed using Rietveld method with the help of FullProf program [7].The
diffraction peaks were modeled by pseudoVoigt function. A standard of LaB6 was used to determine
instrument broadening. The refinement fitting quality was checked by goodness of fit (χ2) and weighted
profile R-factor (Rwp). The calculated results are accepted with χ2 should approach 1 and Rwp must be
close to or less than 10%. The grain size and morphology were investigated by scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) using a Nova NanoLab 600 microscope at 15 kV. The phase compositions and their
relative stabilities in these BSZT thin film were carried out by Raman scattering experiments using a
micro-Raman spectrometer (Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR 800 UV).
For
electrical
measurements,
capacitors
with
a
metalinsulatormetal
(MIM)
structure
were
fabricated. Circular Pt top electrodes (100 nm thick) were deposited with a shadow mask ~100 μm in
diameter and conductive Pt substratesacted asthe bottomelectrode. Ferroelectric properties and leakage
current were obtained at 1 kHz with a TF Analyzer 2000E (aixACCT Systems GmbH, Germany).
3. Results and discussion
BSZT
samples
obtained
possess
a
polycrystalline
perovskite
crystal
structure
and
exhibit
a
tetragonal phase (space group Pmm4) after annealing at 650 oC for 30 min. Those features are
characterized by the main (001)/(100); (110)/(101); (111) and (200)/(002) peaks at approximately 2θ–
22°; 31.4°; 38.6° and 45.2°, respectively (Figure 1). The Rietveld refinement results indicated that the
tetragonal perovskite structure with atoms in positions Ba in 1a (0, 0, 0), Ti in 1b (1/2, 1/2, z), oxygen
in 1b (1/2, 1/2, -0.0153) and in 2c (1/2, 0, 0.513). These obtained results are in good agreement with
previous studies on crystal structure of nanoscale BaTiO3 [8, 9].
The microstructural parameters (the crystallite size D and lattice microstrain Δd/d (where d is
interplanar distance) were obtained by analysis of the peak broadening on applying Rietveld method
using FullProf program with the instrumental resolution function identified by SXRD analysis of the
LaB6 standard. The refined values of structural parameters including lattice constant (a, c), unit cell
volume (V), z(Ti), crystallite size (D), microstrain Δd/d and fitting quality (χ2 and Rwp) are given in
Table 1. As seen, substitution of smaller Sr2+ ion (rSr2+ = 1.58 Å) for Ba2+ (rBa2+ = 1.75 Å) leads to a
decrease of lattice parameters and unit cell volume. In addition, the substitution also induces a more
disordered structure shown by the increase of microstrain value.
Table 1. Structural parameters of the samples estimated from Rietveld refinement. Statistical errors are indicated
in the last significant digit.
Sample
a
c
V, Å3
D, nm
z(Ti)
Δd/d,
χ2
Rwp,
%
%
BSZT
4.0294 (5)
4.0082(9)
65.08(2)
22.7 (2)
0.4825(5)
0.77 (1)
1.39
9.15
BTO
3.9940(8)
4.0124(9)
64.01(3)
23.2 (1)
0.484(8)
0.48(1)
1.33
7.70
[10]
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Preparation and microstructure of acetate based lead free BSZT ferroelectric thin films using sol gel technique. (Ba0.85Sr0.15)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 (BSZT) lead-free ferroelectric thin films at the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) were successfully deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si using a modified spin-coated sol-gel method. Microstructure and electrical properties of the thin film were studied..

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VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics – Physics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (2019) 55-61 Original article Preparation and Microstructure of Acetate-based Lead-free BSZT Ferroelectric Thin Films Using Sol-gel Technique Pham Thi Nguyet1, Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong1,2, Vu Thu Hien1,*, Vu Ngoc Hung1 1International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam 2College of industry and trade, 1, Chua Cam, Trung Nhi, Phuc Yen, Vinh Phuc Vietnam Received 15 January 2019 Revised 04 March 2019; Accepted 15 March 2019 Abstract: (Ba0.85Sr0.15)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 (BSZT) lead-free ferroelectric thin films at the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary(MPB) were successfully deposited onPt/Ti/SiO2/Si usinga modified spin-coated sol-gel method. Microstructure and electrical properties of the thin film were studied. High resolution synchrotron X–ray powder diffraction (SXRD) combined with Rietveld refinement revealed that the samples were crystalized in tetragonal perovskite structure with in-plane symmetry (c < a). Raman spectra also confirmed a tetragonal perovskite crystalline lattice structure. Polarisation studies demonstrate that BSZT films exhibit a rather high saturation polarisation of 22.25 µC.cm−2. Leakage current behaviour was obtained and possible conduction mechanism is discussed. Keywords: xBST-(1-x)BZT ferroelectric materials, thin film technology, sol-gel. 1. Introduction∗ Ferroelectric materials have a unique combination of properties such as spontaneity, a switchable polarisation, piezoelectricity, and pyroelectricity. Therefore, such materials have been extensively studied for many applications, including non-volatile random access memories (NVRAMs), dynamic randomaccessmemories(DRAMs), high-frequency(GHz)bypass capacitors,infrared detectors,aswell as tunable devices in microwave electronics [1, 2]. Lead zirconate titanate PZT has been long time the leading commercial material for actuators, sensors, and transducer devices due to its excellent piezoelectric properties in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the ________ ∗Corresponding author. E- mail address: hien.vuthu@hust.edu.vn https//doi.org/ 10.25073/2588-1124/vnumap.4316 55 56 P.T. Nguyet et al. / VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics – Physics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (2019) 55-61 rhombohedral and tetragonal phases [3]. However, the wide utilization of PZT has increased serious environmental and health concerns due to the toxicity of lead element during the manufacture, and recycling of these devices. Therefore, it is highly desirable to search for lead-free alternative materials for these applications [4]. In the recent years, there have been surged to study and develop lead-free ferroelectric ceramics, which include BaTiO3—BTO, BiFeO3 (BFO) Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 − K0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NKBT), Na0.5K0.5NbO3 (KNN), etc [5]. However, the main drawback of these materials is the presence of highly volatile elements, such as Na, Bi and K. In consequence, those materials are often difficult to prepareintheprecisestoichiometry. It then makestheirferroelectricityorpiezoelectricityisinferiorto PZT. Many previous researches show that by suitable doping engineering both at Ba2+ or/and Ti4+ sites in BTO with either equipollent or aliovalent metals, one can enhance significantly the dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. The strong improvement in piezoelectric effect is attributed to a phase coexistence (rhombohedral and tetragonal) MPB composition starting at the triple point (tetragonal–cubic– rhombohedral), which results in a very low energy barrier for polarisation rotation and lattice distortion [6].This research led to worldwide attention on lead-free (1 - x)[Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3– x(Ba0.3Ca0.7)TiO3] ceramics for various applications. In this work, we report the preparation of (Ba0.85Sr0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3–(BSZT) sample via sol-gel route, their microstructure and electrical properties. BSZT thin films (~225 nm) were deposited on conductive Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates followed by annealing at 650 °C. The crystalline structure (with its space group), room-temperature hysteresis (P–E) measurements and leakage current behaviour of these films were studied. 2. Experiments 2.1. BSZT Sol preparation Barium acetate Ba(CH3COO)2, strontium acetate Sr(CH3COO)2, zirconium n-propoxide Zr(OC3H7)4 and isopropoxide titanate Ti(OC3H7)4 were used as starting materials. Acetic acid CH3COOH and 2-methoxyethanol CH3OCH2CH2OH were selected as solvents, formamide NH2CHO as additives and acetylacetone CH3COCH2COCH3 as reagent to stabilize the solution. First, barium acetate and strontium acetate 99.95% (p.a Sigma Aldrich) were dissolved in glacial acetic acid and 2-methoxylethanol at 120 oC for 4 h. Acetylacetone was used to stabilize isopropoxide titanate and zirconium n-propoxide, and then the modified precursor was added to the above solution with constant rate stirring at room temperature. To adjust viscosity, surface tension of the precursor, formamide was added to the solution under ultrasonic agitation. pH value was adjusted using glacial acetic acid to remain 2–4. The resultant solution was filtered to form the stock solution. The solution was yellow, clear and transparent and stabilize for several months. BSZT thin film depostion characterization Above mentioned solution was then spin-coated on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at 3000 rpm for 30 s. The as-deposited BSZT thin films were heated by a four-step heating procedure: first heated at a low temperature of 150 oC for 10 min to dry the gel; then pyrolyzed at 350 oC in air for 15 min; the films were crystallized at about 650 oC by rapid annealing (flowing rate was 50 oC/min) for 30 min. To gain the crack-free films, an additional pre-annealing was used at 550 oC before rapid thermal annealing. The additional step is useful to eliminate the crack phenomenon owing to the shrinkage of thin films fabricated by the sol-gel. P.T. Nguyet et al. / VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics – Physics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (2019) 55-61 57 2.2. Microstructural and electrical measurements Characterization ofthe crystalline structure of BSZT powders was carried out usingSynchrotron X– ray diffraction (SXRD) at Beamline SAXS of the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Thailand). A data processing software SAXSIT was used to process the 2D scattering patterns for further analyses. The diffraction data were analyzed using Rietveld method with the help of FullProf program [7].The diffraction peaks were modeled by pseudo–Voigt function. A standard of LaB6 was used to determine instrument broadening. The refinement fitting quality was checked by goodness of fit (χ2) and weighted profile R-factor (Rwp). The calculated results are accepted with χ2 should approach 1 and Rwp must be close to or less than 10%. The grain size and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using a Nova NanoLab 600 microscope at 15 kV. The phase compositions and their relative stabilities in these BSZT thin film were carried out by Raman scattering experiments using a micro-Raman spectrometer (Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR 800 UV). For electrical measurements, capacitors with a metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structure were fabricated. Circular Pt top electrodes (100 nm thick) were deposited with a shadow mask ~100 μm in diameter and conductive Pt substratesacted asthe bottomelectrode. Ferroelectric properties and leakage current were obtained at 1 kHz with a TF Analyzer 2000E (aixACCT Systems GmbH, Germany). 3. Results and discussion BSZT samples obtained possess a polycrystalline perovskite crystal structure and exhibit a tetragonal phase (space group Pmm4) after annealing at 650 oC for 30 min. Those features are characterized by the main (001)/(100); (110)/(101); (111) and (200)/(002) peaks at approximately 2θ– 22°; 31.4°; 38.6° and 45.2°, respectively (Figure 1). The Rietveld refinement results indicated that the tetragonal perovskite structure with atoms in positions Ba in 1a (0, 0, 0), Ti in 1b (1/2, 1/2, z), oxygen in 1b (1/2, 1/2, -0.0153) and in 2c (1/2, 0, 0.513). These obtained results are in good agreement with previous studies on crystal structure of nanoscale BaTiO3 [8, 9]. The microstructural parameters (the crystallite size D and lattice microstrain Δd/d (where d is interplanar distance) were obtained by analysis of the peak broadening on applying Rietveld method using FullProf program with the instrumental resolution function identified by SXRD analysis of the LaB6 standard. The refined values of structural parameters including lattice constant (a, c), unit cell volume (V), z(Ti), crystallite size (D), microstrain Δd/d and fitting quality (χ2 and Rwp) are given in Table 1. As seen, substitution of smaller Sr2+ ion (rSr2+ = 1.58 Å) for Ba2+ (rBa2+ = 1.75 Å) leads to a decrease of lattice parameters and unit cell volume. In addition, the substitution also induces a more disordered structure shown by the increase of microstrain value. Table 1. Structural parameters of the samples estimated from Rietveld refinement. Statistical errors are indicated in the last significant digit. Sample a BSZT 4.0294 (5) BTO 3.9940(8) [10] c 4.0082(9) 4.0124(9) V, Å3 65.08(2) 64.01(3) D, nm 22.7 (2) 23.2 (1) z(Ti) 0.4825(5) 0.484(8) Δd/d, % 0.77 (1) 0.48(1) χ2 Rwp, % 1.39 9.15 1.33 7.70 58 P.T. Nguyet et al. / VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics – Physics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (2019) 55-61 Iobs Ical Iobs-Ical Bragg position 10 20 30 40 50 60 2 (deg) Figure 1. SXRD diffraction pattern of the BSZT sample and processed by the Rietveld method. The Miller indices of the main phase peaks and the peak positions are indicated. In order to confirm the structure changes of BSZT sample with doped amount of Sr and Zr, Raman scattering spectra were measured. Typical room temperature Raman spectra of BSZT thin film is shown in Figure 2. Some regions of the obtained Raman signal were rather noisy. However, one can observe four disorder-activated bands centered at ∼137.8, 302, 517.3 and 742 cm-1 (marked as A, B, C and D, respectively, in Fig. 2). Their activation is expected from the eight-site model due to disorder of Ti ions, which can occupy four off-center sites in the tetragonal phase. B C A D 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Raman shift/ cm-1 Figure 2. Room temperature Raman spectra of BSZT thin films annealing at 650 oC Apparently, the incorporation of Zr and Sr atoms causes local distortions and breaks partially the translational symmetry of the BTO lattice and, therefore, disorder-activated background is much more P.T. Nguyet et al. / VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics – Physics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (2019) 55-61 59 complicated in BSZT [11]. The disappearance of the well-known dip at 178 cm-1 and the insignificant A1+ E (TO+LO) peak at 301 cm-1 is characteristic of the cubic-to tetragonal phase transition [12]. Figure 3. SEM images of the top surface (upper part) and cross-section of sol-gel BSZT thin films (lower part). Figure 3 presents the SEM images of the surface of the BSZT films annealed at 650 ◦C. The grain size is around 30 nmandthemajorityof the grainsare separatedbyporositywhich isdarker surrounding regions. An increase of annealing temperature may allow the coalescence of those small grains. The coalescence also leads to increase the size of the intergranular porosity. Surface mappings were then confirmed by cross section analysis shown in the lower image. As seen, the out-of-plane grain sizes and morphologies are approximately the same than the top surface: the grains have a spherical shape and are disordered in arranging. The obtained thickness of the film is ca. 225 nm for 8 coating layers which turn out 28 nm per coating layer. The ferroelectric nature of prepared BSZT thin films was confirmed by a hysteresis loop of polarisation (P) as a function of an applied electric field (E) at 1 kHz, as shown in Figure 4. Careful examination of different Pt top electrodes on shadow masks with the Pt bottom electrode on the Si substrate at room temperature revealed saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops. The hysteresis loops indicate that as the voltage increases, the P–E loop becomes slanted. As the electric field increased from 0.5 kV/cm to 350 kV/cm, both saturation polarisation (Ps) and the remnant polarisation (Pr) were increased. Ferroelectric loops showed a maximum of 22.27 µC/cm2 saturation polarisation and 5.85 µC/cm2 remnant polarisation in the BSZT thin films. These obtained values are smaller than that of the bulk ceramic counterpart [13]. The much higher coercive feld (Ec~66.5 kV/cm) might be owing to much smaller grains in the BSZT films in comparison with the bulk ceramic hence there being many more grain boundaries. Besides, it might also be due to substrate clamping effects [14]. 60 P.T. Nguyet et al. / VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics – Physics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (2019) 55-61 20 1.2x104 10 9.0x103 0 6.0x103 -10 3.0x103 -20 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 E (kV/cm) 0.00 100 200 300 400 500 E (kV/cm) Figure 4: P-E loop of the BSZT film at 1 kHz. Figure 5: Current density as a function of applied electric field (J-E) for BSZT thin film. In order to determine the conduction mechanism of the BZT–BST thin film, measurements of its current density–electric field (J–E) characteristics were performed. It was seen that the conduction through the dielectric BSZT film is noticeable when a relatively large bias voltage is applied. Of all the possible mechanisms, this conduction current shows a non-Ohmic behaviour in the electric filed region below 100 kV/cm as is illustrated in Figure 5. However, we found a steady increase of the leakage current when the electric field was increased (above 100 kV/cm). It is probably bulk-limited conduction mechanism. Investigations of the leakage current–temperature dependence of the thin films is in progress. These studies may help to elucidate the conducting mechanism across the metal-dielectric junction. 4. Conclusion In summary, we have successfully synthesized BSZT phase pure powder, and deposited BSZT thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by the sol-gel process. The additional formamide and acetylacetone as an additive and stabilizer is useful to eliminate the effect of the films bulk shrinkage. The perovskite phase of thin films was formed at 650 oC. The thin films were smooth and crack-free. BSZT films exhibited ferroelectric properties with rather high saturated polarization, Ps of 22.25 C/cm2, and coercive field (Ec~66.5 kV/cm). Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the financial support of the National Foundation for Science & Technology Development of Vietnam (Nafosted, Project Grant 103.02-2017-14). References [1] J.F. Scott, Applications of Modern Ferroelectrics, Science 315 (2007) 954–959. P.T. Nguyet et al. / VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics – Physics, Vol. 35, No. 1 (2019) 55-61 61 [2] M. Bibes, V. Garcia, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, N.D. Mathur, A. Barthe, Giant tunnel electroresistance for non-destructive readout of ferroelectric states, Nature 460 (2009) 2–5. [3] G.H. Haertling, Ferroelectric Ceramics: History and Technology, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82 (1999) 797–818. [4] P.K. Panda, B. Sahoo, PZT to Lead Free Piezo Ceramics: A Review, Ferroelectrics. 474 (2017) 128–143. [5] I. Coondoo, N. Panwar, A. Kholkin, Lead-free piezoelectrics: Current status and perspectives, J. Adv. Dielect. 3 (2013) 1330002. [6] W. Liu, X. Ren, Large Piezoelectric Effect in Pb-Free Ceramics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 (2009) 257602. [7] L.B. Mccusker, R.B. Von Dreele, D.E. Cox, D. Loue, P. Scardi, Rietveld refinement guidelines, J. Appl. Cryst. 32 (1999) 36–50. [8] C.J. Xiao, C.Q. Jin, X.H. Wang, Crystal structure of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics, Mater. Chem. Phys. 111 (2008) 209–212. [9] M.B. Smith, K. Page, T. Siegrist, P.L. Redmond, E.C. Walter, R. Seshadri, et al., Crystal Structure and the Paraelectric-to-Ferroelectric Phase Transition of Nanoscale BaTiO3, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 (2008) 6955–6963. [10] T.H. Vu, T.L. To, D.M. Nguyen, N.H. Vu, Cau truc pha va dac trung sat dien cua mang mong Ba(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 che tao bang phuong phap Sol-gel, SPMS Conf. 2 (2017) 523–526. [11] L.H. Robins, D.L. Kaiser, L.D. Rotter, P.K. Schenck, G.T. Stauf, L.H. Robins, et al., Investigation of the structure of barium titanate thin films by Raman spectroscopy, J. Appl. Phys. 76 (1994) 7487–7498. [12] R. Farhi, M. El Marssi, A. Simon, J. Ravez, A Raman and dielectric studyof ferroelectric Ba(Ti1− x Zrx)O3 ceramics, Eur. Phys. J. B. 9 (1999) 599–604. [13] Y. Li, H. Cheng, H. Xu, Y. Zhang, P. Yan, T. Huang, Electromechanical properties of (Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics, Ceram. Int. 42 (2016) 10191–10196. [14] V.P. Sreenivas, K.P. Dhiren, B.C. Douglas, M. Tomozawa, G.L. Sharma, J.F. Scott, et al., Structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and energy density properties of (1 - x )BZT – xBCT ceramic capacitors for energy storage applications, J. Mater. Sci. 48 (2013) 2151–2157.

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