Tài liệu Hệ điều hành
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This paper focuses on nonacademic class, which is important to measure what factors influence on the e-services. This manuscript aims to develop an acceptance technology model to figure out what the factors motivate nonacademic staff at the universities continuously use the eservices.
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Giáo trình Nguyên lý hệ điều hành - Nghề: Quản trị mạng trình bày các nội dung chính sau: Giới thiệu chung về hệ điều hành, điều khiển dữ liệu, điều khiển bộ nhớ, điều khiển CPU và Tiến trình, hệ điều hành đa xử lý. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo để nắm nội dung chi tiết.
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Module 23 - Windows NT. The Windows NT operating system is designed to take advantage of the many advances in processor technology. Although primarily run on the Intel architecture, NT was designed to be portable in order to take advantage of whatever promising technologies happened to come along. Key goals for the system included portability, security, POSIX compliance, multiprocessor support, extensibility, international support, and compatibility with MS-DOS and MS-Windows applications.
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Module 22 - The Linux system. Chapter 21 discussed the internals of the 4.3BSD operating system in detail. BSD is just one of the UNIX-like systems. Linux is another UNIX-like system that has gained popularity in recent years. In this chapter, we look at the history and development of Linux, and cover the user and programmer interfaces that Linux presents interfaces that owe a great deal to the UNIX tradition.
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Module 21 - The UNIX system. Although operating system concepts can be considered in purely theoretical terms, it is often useful to see how they are implemented in practice. This chapter presents an in-depth examination of the 4.3BSD operating system, a version of UNIX, as an example of the various concepts presented in this lecture. By examining a complete, real system, we can see how the various concepts discussed in this book relate both to one another and to practice.
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The information stored in the system (both data and code), as well as the physical resources of the computer system, need to be protected from unauthorized access, malicious destruction or alteration, and accidental introduction of inconsistency. In this chapter, we examine the ways in which information may be misused or intentionally made inconsistent. We then present mechanisms to guard against this occurrence.
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The various processes in an operating system must be protected from one another’s activities. For that purpose, various mechanisms exist that can be used to ensure that the files, memory segments, CPU, and other resources can be operated on by only those processes that have gained proper authorization from the operating system. In this chapter, we examine the problem of protection in great detail and develop a unifying model for implementing protection.
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Module 18 - Distributed coordination. Chapter 18 examines various mechanisms for process synchronization and communication, as well as methods for dealing with the deadlock problem, in a distributed environment. In addition, since a distributed system may suffer from a variety of failures that are not encountered in a centralized system, we also discuss here the issue of failure in a distributed system.
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Module 17 - Distributed-file systems. Chapter 17 looks at the current major research and development in distributed-file systems (DFS). The purpose of a DFS is to support the same kind of sharing when the files are physically dispersed among the various sites of a distributed system.
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Module 16 - Distributed system structures. Chapter 16 examines distributed-system structures, including coverage of remote services, thread-management, and the Open Software Foundation’s Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) thread package.
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Module 15 - Network structures. In a distributed (loosely coupled) system, the processors do not share memory or a clock. Instead, each processor has its own local memory. The processors communicate with one another through various communication networks, such as high-speed buses or telephone lines. In this chapter, we discuss the general structure of distributed systems and the networks that interconnect them. Detailed discussions are given in chapters 16 to 18.
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Module 14 - Tertiary storage structure. In this chapter introduced the concept of primary, secondary, and tertiary storage. In this chapter, we discuss tertiary storage in more detail. First we describe the types of storage devices used for tertiary storage. Next, we discuss the issues that arise when an operating system uses tertiary storage. Finally, we consider some performance aspects of tertiary storage systems.
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Module 13 - Secondary storage structure. In this chapter we describe the internal data structures and algorithms used by the operating system to implement this interface. We also discuss the lowest level of the file system the secondary storage structure. We first describe disk-head-scheduling algorithms. Next we discuss disk formatting and management of boot blocks, damaged blocks, and swap space. We end with coverage of disk reliability and stable-storage.
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Module 12 - I/O systems. The role of the operating system in computer I/O is to manage and control I/O operations and I/O devices. Although related topics appear in other chapters, here we bring together the pieces to paint a complete picture. In this chapter we describe I/O Structure, Devices, Device Drivers, Caching, and Terminal I/O.
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Module 11 - File-system implementation. In this chapter we discuss various methods for storing information on secondary storage. The basic issues are device directory, free space management, and space allocation on a disk.
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Module 10 - File-system interface. In this chapter, we consider the various aspects of ﬁles and the major directory structures. We also discuss the semantics of sharing ﬁles among multiple processes, users, and computers. Finally, we discuss ways to handle ﬁle protection, necessary when we have multiple users and we want to control who may access ﬁles and how ﬁles may be accessed.
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Module 9 - Virtual memory. Virtual memory can be a very interesting subject since it has so many different aspects: page faults, managing the backing store, page replacement, frame allocation, thrashing, page size. The objectives of this chapter are to explain these concepts and show how paging works.
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Module 8 - Memory management. After completing this unit, you should be able to: Explain the difference between logical and physical addresses, explain the difference between internal and external fragmentation, explain the following allocation algorithms.
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Module 7 - Deadlocks. After studying this chapter you will be able to develop a description of deadlocks, which prevent sets of concurrent processes from completing their tasks; to present a number of different methods for preventing or avoiding deadlocks in a computer system.
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Module 6 - Process synchronization. Chapter 6 is concerned with the topic of process synchronization among concurrently executing processes. Concurrency is generally very hard for students to deal with correctly, and so we have tried to introduce it and its problems with the classic process coordination problems: mutual exclusion, bounded-buffer, readers/writers, and so on. An understanding of these problems and their solutions is part of current operating system theory and development.
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Module 5 - CPU scheduling. CPU scheduling is the basis of multiprogrammed operating systems. By switching the CPU among processes, the operating system can make the computer more productive. In this chapter, we introduce the basic scheduling concepts and discuss in great length CPU scheduling. FCFS, SJF, Round-Robin, Priority, and the other scheduling algorithms should be familiar to the students.
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In this chapter we introduce the concept of a process and the notion of concurrent execution. Those are at the very heart of modern operating systems. A process is is a program in execution and is the unit of work in a modern time-sharing system. Such a system consists of a collection of processes: Operating-system processes executing system code, and user processes executing user code. This chapter also discuss the notion of a thread (light-weight process) and interprocess communication (IPC).
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Chapter 3 is concerned with the operating system interfaces that users (or at least programmers) actually see: control cards and system calls. The treatment is somewhat vague since more detail requires picking a specific system to discuss. This chapter is best supplemented with exactly this detail for the specific system the students have at hand. They should study the control card (or command) semantics and syntax; ideally they should study the system calls and write some programs making system calls.
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Module 2 - Computer-system structures. Chapter 2 discusses the general structure of computer systems. It may be a good idea to review the basic concepts of machine organization and assembly language programming. The students should be comfortable with the concepts of memory, CPU, registers, I/O, interrupts, instructions, and the instruction execution cycle. Since the operating system is the interface between the hardware and user programs, a good understanding of operating systems requires an understanding of both hardware and programs.
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Module 1 - Introduction. In this chapter, you will learn to: To describe the basic organization of computer systems, to provide a grand tour of the major components of operating systems, to give an overview of the many types of computing environments, to explore several open-source operating systems.
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Giáo án tích hợp Quản lý dự án phần mềm CNTT trình bày được về quy trình, thành phần, hoạt động, các phương pháp, công cụ và một số kỹ năng để quản trị một dự án phần mềm; Nội dung các công việc khi tham gia xây dựng được một dự án phần mềm và kiểm soát dự án.
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Bài giảng Hệ điều hành: Quản lý nhập xuất cung cấp cho người học các kiến thức: Phân loại thiết bị nhập xuất, bộ điều khiển thiết bị, phần mềm độc lập thiết bị, hệ thống vào ra đĩa, cấu trúc đĩa từ,... Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo nội dung chi tiết.
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Bài giảng Hệ điều hành: Hệ thống tệp cung cấp cho người học các kiến thức: Tập tin, thuộc tính file, cấu trúc thư mục, quản lý khối trong ổ đĩa cứng, cấp phát móc nối, cấp phát móc nối, quản lý không gian trống,... Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo.
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Bài giảng Hệ điều hành: Quản lý bộ nhớ cung cấp cho người học các kiến thức: Kết buộc địa chỉ, không gian địa chỉ logic và địa chỉ vật lý, đơn vị quản lý bộ nhớ, các cấu trúc cơ bản của chương trình, cấu trúc tuyến tính, cấu trúc động,... Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo.
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Bài giảng Hệ điều hành: Bế tắc cung cấp cho người học các kiến thức: Mô hình hệ thống, điều kiện cần để có bế tắc, đồ thị phân phối tài nguyên, giải quyết bế tắc, tránh bế tắc, thuật toán đồ thị cấp phát tài nguyên, phát hiện bế tắc,... Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo.
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