Contribution to improving the monitoring of distribution and consumption of final energy (Water, Electricity, Gas) in developing countries

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Contribution to improving the monitoring of distribution and consumption of final energy (Water, Electricity, Gas) in developing countries. The main objective of this paper is to propose a model based on recent measurement technologies (Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing, etc.) for energy distribution and consumption monitoring in developing countries.
International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security
VOL. 4, NO. 5, MAY 2016, 153158
Available online at: www.ijcncs.org
E-ISSN 2308-9830 (Online) / ISSN 2410-0595 (Print)
Contribution to Improving the Monitoring of Distribution and
Consumption of Final Energy (Water, Electricity, Gas) in
Developing Countries
LANDRY T. YELOME1, SAMBA NDIAYE2, NGARTABE KAG-TEUBE3, SIDI M. FARSSI4,
ABDOURAHMANE RAIMY5, SAMUEL OUYA6
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Cheikh Anta Diop University, Polytechnic High School, Dakar, Senegal
E-mail: 1landry.yelome@gmail.com, 2techni133@gmail.com, 3kagteubedaniel@gmail.com,
4farsism@ucad.sn, 5araimy16@yahoo.fr, 6samuel.ouya@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
If electricity, water and gas production has almost doubled since the 1970s, the share of developing
countries has continued to contract. Public operators of final energy distribution in developing countries
face a lot of problems such as measuring of consumption, bill collection, etc. The main objective of this
paper is to propose a model based on recent measurement technologies (Internet of Things, big data, cloud
computing, etc.) for energy distribution and consumption monitoring in developing countries. Our approach
will help facilitate access to the final energy to households and businesses, the real-time measuring of
consumption, collection of invoice amounts, detection and alert on failures, etc. This approach will also
allow operators to increase their production and distribution capacity in developing countries. The different
results obtained during simulations show the relevance of our approach.
Keywords: Big Data Analytic, Cloud Computing, Development, Energy, Internet of things (IoT),
Real Time, Smart Metering.
1
INTRODUCTION
suppliers
are
also
faced
with
bill
collection
problems, detection and repair of breakdowns, etc.
The
rapid
growth
of
the
population
and
the
The lack of monitoring of consumption is usually the
transformation
of
lifestyles
and
economic
cause
of
power
outages,
non-renewal
of
development in developing countries [1] increase
infrastructure, inability to expand the distribution
pressure
on
water
resources,
electricity
and
gas
network and increase production capacity. For their
disponibility that are already limited due to the size
part, consumers generally have difficulty adequately
of its needs: food production, processing industry,
meet their needs. They also face a tracking problem
health facilities, domestic, etc. Environmental issues,
of consumption. In addition to the quantity, quality,
including
climate
change,
are
added
to
these
consumers are struggling to track and control their
pressures.
The
production, supply,
sanitation and
consumption.
proper
management
of
these
resources
are
key
The main objective of our research is to provide an
elements
to
achieve
the
main
objective
for
optimal
solution
for
the
distribution
and
development
policy,
namely
the
fight
against
consumption
of
final
energy
such
as
water,
poverty.
electricity and
gas
in
developing
countries.
This
In
developing
countries,
the
producers
and
solution will allow households and businesses easy
providers of the final energy face problems such as
access to these resources.
For their part, public
counting of consumption. Indeed, in most of these
operators that provide these resources should ensure
countries, people continue using conventional meters
better
availability
of
the
latter.
They
will
also
or
prepaid
meters.
Field
workers
are
frequently
establish
bills
and
recover
easily
revenues
from
recruited to note consumer volume. Producers and
154
L. T. Yelome et. al / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 4 (5), May 2016
businesses
and
households
based
on
their
increasingly
needed
to
make
use
of
the
data
consumption.
generated by the Internet of Things [7][8].
In the continuation of this paper, section 2 presents
the
state
of
the
art
on
recent
measurement
2.4
Cloud computing
technologies. In section 3, we present our approach
for monitoring distribution and consumption of final
energy in developing countries. Section 4 presents
the results of simulations performed on the basis of a
test platform. Lastly, the fifth and last section
presents conclusion.
Cloud computing refers to a model for a
pervasive practice network access on request to a
shared pool of configurable computing resources
pool (eg, networks, servers, storage, applications
and services) that can be provisioned quickly and
released with minimal management effort [9] . This
2
STATE OF THE ART ON RECENT
MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES
cloud model has five essential characteristics (on
self-demand services, access to the wide network,
resource pooling, rapid elasticity, measured service,
2.1
Smart meter
multi Tenacity), four deployment models (cloud
public, private cloud, cloud community, hybrid
A
smart
meter
is
a
meter
have
said
AMR
cloud). The cloud model is also composed of three
technologies (Automated Meter Reading) [2] which
service models: IaaS, PaaS and SaaS [10].
measures in detail and precise, and possibly in real
time, consumption of electricity, water or gas. The
data transmission is by radio waves or power line
carrier (PLC) to the distribution network manager
in charge of counting.
2.2
Internet of things
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an environment in
which objects, animals or people are provided with
unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data
over a network without requiring human-to-human
or
human-to-computer
interaction
[3].
IoT
has
evolved
from
the
convergence
of
wireless
technologies,
micro-electromechanical
systems
(MEMS) [4] and the Internet. The concept may also
be referred to as the Internet of Everything. A
Fig. 1. Overview of different types of Cloud Computing
connected object is electronic equipment that can
communicate with a smartphone, a touch pad
3
SUGGESTED SOLUTION
and/or computer. That object can send and receive
information, this through a wireless connection,
Bluetooth or WiFi. The main advantage is the
interactivity, the ability to retrieve information or to
send statistics, create rules, etc.
In most developing countries, Internet of things
networks are almost nonexistent. We suggest first
the establishment of Internet of things networks in
these countries.
Secondly, for each type of resource (water,
2.3 Big data
Big Data refer to data sets that become so large
that it becomes difficult to manage with
conventional data management tools [5].
The revolution brings Big Data can be explained
by two phenomena. On the one hand, the nature of
the data has changed. The source is not only
businesses, but especially the users themselves,
now generate content: text, images, video, data, etc.
On the other hand, the dynamic exchange detonated
the speed at which this content is distributed, since
everything is now shared in real time. Big data have
the following attributes: volume, variety, velocity,
variability and complexity [6]. Big Data analytics is
electricity, gas), we suggest build and improve the
distribution network. In particular, we propose to
integrate at each level of the distribution network of
Internet of things.
For each type of subscription (water, electricity,
gas), each subscriber is identified and has a smart
meter. This is connected firstly to the distribution
system, and secondly to the IoT network.
Thus, we can enable or disable the remote
subscriber. Thus, only persons authorized will have
their connection activated. Smart meters
periodically and automatically send consumption
data to the data collection system integrated to the
IoT network. This will also determine in real time
the consumption of the subscriber. All data
155
L. T. Yelome et. al / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 4 (5), May 2016
collected are transmitted to the provider control
subsystem. These data that come from probes are
mass data; for this we recommend the use of big
data under big data system to store and process
them.
Once
recovered,
these
fields
are
stored
permanently
in
the
data
warehouse
or
data
warehouse.
The
storage
principle
is:
the
data
warehouse is a set of servers connected to each one
of which is the central server that will receive the
storage requests. It will handle rooter information
to an available server. The actions that can be
performed include, among others: making statistics,
Fig. 3. Overview of architecture of proposed solution
calculate the share of the state to be paid by
operators to the regulator on the basis of these
statistics and generate the invoice that will be sent
to the operator.
The vast majority of final energy distribution
companies in developing countries have resources
that are often limited. They do not have enough
resources to deploy private IoT networks. The use
of cloud computing will enable businesses to have a
powerful IT infrastructure without having to invest
in software and hardware. Cloud Computing will
help reduce operating costs and enable SMEs to use
their resources to their projects of expansion and
quality.
We noticed that payments of post-paid bills are
usually made to agencies or through intermediaries.
This not only wastes time to subscribers, this is also
one of the main causes of late payments. This is due
mainly to the fact that in developing countries, most
households do not have bank accounts with which
they transact. It would be interesting to encourage
households to have bank accounts. As motivator,
they propose a reduction of the costs of transactions
and account maintenance fees. Banks will then
automatically deduct the amounts of accounts
receivable invoices. It will use the data repository
and data from the billing system for water
suppliers, electricity and gas. The bank has a duty
to report any anomaly that occurs, for example
when the subscriber no longer has sufficient funds.
Broadband
networks
(3G,
4G,
etc.)
are
increasingly
implanted
in
developing
countries.
These networks allow for real-time applications. It
is
therefore
desirable
to
develop
real-time
applications
as
a
value-added
service
allowing
subscribers to view real-time energy consumption,
to be informed of their bills with maturities, to
settle these bills, to make claims.
4
SIMULATION
Fig. 2. Overview of architecture of proposed solution
4.1
Simulation platform
Like smart meters, power plants, transmission
and distribution stations shall be equipped with
sensors connected to the IoT network. So they will
be able to send information about quantities of
distributed energy. Thus, we can know at any
To make sure of better results, it is set
up architecture of collect, storage and analyzes
data. The diagram of figure 4 describes the
architecture of simulation.
moment what is the amount of resource that passes
through each point. This will also help detecting
faults at this level and sending alert. Breakdowns
can be repaired very quickly.
Fig. 4. Overview of simulation platform
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Contribution to improving the monitoring of distribution and consumption of final energy (Water, Electricity, Gas) in developing countries. The main objective of this paper is to propose a model based on recent measurement technologies (Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing, etc.) for energy distribution and consumption monitoring in developing countries..

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International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security VOL. 4, NO. 5, MAY 2016, 153–158 Available online at: www.ijcncs.org E-ISSN 2308-9830 (Online) / ISSN 2410-0595 (Print) Contribution to Improving the Monitoring of Distribution and Consumption of Final Energy (Water, Electricity, Gas) in Developing Countries LANDRY T. YELOME1, SAMBA NDIAYE2, NGARTABE KAG-TEUBE3, SIDI M. FARSSI4, ABDOURAHMANE RAIMY5, SAMUEL OUYA6 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Cheikh Anta Diop University, Polytechnic High School, Dakar, Senegal E-mail: 1landry.yelome@gmail.com, 2techni133@gmail.com, 3kagteubedaniel@gmail.com, 4farsism@ucad.sn, 5araimy16@yahoo.fr, 6samuel.ouya@gmail.com ABSTRACT If electricity, water and gas production has almost doubled since the 1970s, the share of developing countries has continued to contract. Public operators of final energy distribution in developing countries face a lot of problems such as measuring of consumption, bill collection, etc. The main objective of this paper is to propose a model based on recent measurement technologies (Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing, etc.) for energy distribution and consumption monitoring in developing countries. Our approach will help facilitate access to the final energy to households and businesses, the real-time measuring of consumption, collection of invoice amounts, detection and alert on failures, etc. This approach will also allow operators to increase their production and distribution capacity in developing countries. The different results obtained during simulations show the relevance of our approach. Keywords: Big Data Analytic, Cloud Computing, Development, Energy, Internet of things (IoT), Real Time, Smart Metering. 1 INTRODUCTION The rapid growth of the population and the transformation of lifestyles and economic development in developing countries [1] increase pressure on water resources, electricity and gas disponibility that are already limited due to the size of its needs: food production, processing industry, health facilities, domestic, etc. Environmental issues, including climate change, are added to these pressures. The production, supply, sanitation and proper management of these resources are key elements to achieve the main objective for development policy, namely the fight against poverty. In developing countries, the producers and providers of the final energy face problems such as counting of consumption. Indeed, in most of these countries, people continue using conventional meters or prepaid meters. Field workers are frequently recruited to note consumer volume. Producers and suppliers are also faced with bill collection problems, detection and repair of breakdowns, etc. The lack of monitoring of consumption is usually the cause of power outages, non-renewal of infrastructure, inability to expand the distribution network and increase production capacity. For their part, consumers generally have difficulty adequately meet their needs. They also face a tracking problem of consumption. In addition to the quantity, quality, consumers are struggling to track and control their consumption. The main objective of our research is to provide an optimal solution for the distribution and consumption of final energy such as water, electricity and gas in developing countries. This solution will allow households and businesses easy access to these resources. For their part, public operators that provide these resources should ensure better availability of the latter. They will also establish bills and recover easily revenues from 154 L. T. Yelome et. al / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 4 (5), May 2016 businesses and households based on their consumption. In the continuation of this paper, section 2 presents the state of the art on recent measurement technologies. In section 3, we present our approach for monitoring distribution and consumption of final energy in developing countries. Section 4 presents the results of simulations performed on the basis of a test platform. Lastly, the fifth and last section presents conclusion. 2 STATE OF THE ART ON RECENT MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES 2.1 Smart meter A smart meter is a meter have said AMR technologies (Automated Meter Reading) [2] which measures in detail and precise, and possibly in real time, consumption of electricity, water or gas. The data transmission is by radio waves or power line carrier (PLC) to the distribution network manager in charge of counting. increasingly needed to make use of the data generated by the Internet of Things [7][8]. 2.4 Cloud computing Cloud computing refers to a model for a pervasive practice network access on request to a shared pool of configurable computing resources pool (eg, networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be provisioned quickly and released with minimal management effort [9] . This cloud model has five essential characteristics (on self-demand services, access to the wide network, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, measured service, multi Tenacity), four deployment models (cloud public, private cloud, cloud community, hybrid cloud). The cloud model is also composed of three service models: IaaS, PaaS and SaaS [10]. 2.2 Internet of things The Internet of Things (IoT) is an environment in which objects, animals or people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction [3]. IoT has evolved from the convergence of wireless technologies, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) [4] and the Internet. The concept may also be referred to as the Internet of Everything. A connected object is electronic equipment that can communicate with a smartphone, a touch pad and/or computer. That object can send and receive information, this through a wireless connection, Bluetooth or WiFi. The main advantage is the interactivity, the ability to retrieve information or to send statistics, create rules, etc. 2.3 Big data Big Data refer to data sets that become so large that it becomes difficult to manage with conventional data management tools [5]. The revolution brings Big Data can be explained by two phenomena. On the one hand, the nature of the data has changed. The source is not only businesses, but especially the users themselves, now generate content: text, images, video, data, etc. On the other hand, the dynamic exchange detonated the speed at which this content is distributed, since everything is now shared in real time. Big data have the following attributes: volume, variety, velocity, variability and complexity [6]. Big Data analytics is Fig. 1. Overview of different types of Cloud Computing 3 SUGGESTED SOLUTION In most developing countries, Internet of things networks are almost nonexistent. We suggest first the establishment of Internet of things networks in these countries. Secondly, for each type of resource (water, electricity, gas), we suggest build and improve the distribution network. In particular, we propose to integrate at each level of the distribution network of Internet of things. For each type of subscription (water, electricity, gas), each subscriber is identified and has a smart meter. This is connected firstly to the distribution system, and secondly to the IoT network. Thus, we can enable or disable the remote subscriber. Thus, only persons authorized will have their connection activated. Smart meters periodically and automatically send consumption data to the data collection system integrated to the IoT network. This will also determine in real time the consumption of the subscriber. All data 155 L. T. Yelome et. al / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 4 (5), May 2016 collected are transmitted to the provider control subsystem. These data that come from probes are mass data; for this we recommend the use of big data under big data system to store and process them. Once recovered, these fields are stored permanently in the data warehouse or data warehouse. The storage principle is: the data warehouse is a set of servers connected to each one of which is the central server that will receive the storage requests. It will handle rooter information to an available server. The actions that can be performed include, among others: making statistics, calculate the share of the state to be paid by operators to the regulator on the basis of these statistics and generate the invoice that will be sent to the operator. The vast majority of final energy distribution companies in developing countries have resources that are often limited. They do not have enough resources to deploy private IoT networks. The use of cloud computing will enable businesses to have a powerful IT infrastructure without having to invest in software and hardware. Cloud Computing will help reduce operating costs and enable SMEs to use their resources to their projects of expansion and quality. Fig. 3. Overview of architecture of proposed solution We noticed that payments of post-paid bills are usually made to agencies or through intermediaries. This not only wastes time to subscribers, this is also one of the main causes of late payments. This is due mainly to the fact that in developing countries, most households do not have bank accounts with which they transact. It would be interesting to encourage households to have bank accounts. As motivator, they propose a reduction of the costs of transactions and account maintenance fees. Banks will then automatically deduct the amounts of accounts receivable invoices. It will use the data repository and data from the billing system for water suppliers, electricity and gas. The bank has a duty to report any anomaly that occurs, for example when the subscriber no longer has sufficient funds. Broadband networks (3G, 4G, etc.) are increasingly implanted in developing countries. These networks allow for real-time applications. It is therefore desirable to develop real-time applications as a value-added service allowing subscribers to view real-time energy consumption, to be informed of their bills with maturities, to settle these bills, to make claims. 4 SIMULATION Fig. 2. Overview of architecture of proposed solution 4.1 Simulation platform Like smart meters, power plants, transmission and distribution stations shall be equipped with sensors connected to the IoT network. So they will be able to send information about quantities of distributed energy. Thus, we can know at any moment what is the amount of resource that passes through each point. This will also help detecting faults at this level and sending alert. Breakdowns can be repaired very quickly. To make sure of better results, it is set up architecture of collect, storage and analyzes data. The diagram of figure 4 describes the architecture of simulation. Fig. 4. Overview of simulation platform 156 L. T. Yelome et. al / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 4 (5), May 2016 Fig. 5. Central.py Fig. 7. Analytic.py 4.2 Results Fig. 8. Brut data in MongoDb Fig. 6. Client.py Fig. 9. Evolution of the consumption of a subscriber 157 L. T. Yelome et. al / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 4 (5), May 2016 5 CONCLUSION Fig. 10. Monthly consumption and bills settlement recapitulation In this study, we have proposed a new approach that focuses improving the quality of public service provision of water, electricity and gas in developing countries. With the system we propose, suppliers can easily put water, electricity and gas available to households and businesses thanks to the extension and improvement of its distribution network. Households and companies can subscribe without difficulty. Providers can accurately measure consumption of subscribers. Providers can even anticipate future consumption by households and businesses. Thanks to banking, identification and control of subscribers, payments of invoices will be improved and regular. This will allow the suppliers to have regular resources to further expand their networks and improve quality of services they offer. 6 REFERENCES Fig. 11. Determination of the difference between received volumes and expected volumes Fig. 12. Real-time curves representing the evolution of receipts volumes and expected volumes Whenever the discard (expected - received) exceeds the limit, a notification is automatically sent. This difference may be caused by different phenomena. It may be a malfunction. In this case agents as soon intervene to identify and repair the fault. It can also be a robbery from the subscriber. In this case, the subscriber will be punished. [1] World Population Prospects [2] Verma, U. K., et al. "Automated Meter Reading (AMR) Implementation-Eastern Region Experience." Water and Energy International 58.12 (2016): 51-55. [3] Huang, Yinghui, and Guanyu Li. "Descriptive models for Internet of Things." Intelligent Control and Information Processing (ICICIP), 2010 International Conference on. IEEE, 2010. [4] Marek, Jiri, Bernd Hoefflinger, and Udo-Martin Gomez. "MEMS—Micro-Electromechanical Sensors for the Internet of Everything." CHIPS 2020 VOL. 2. Springer International Publishing, 2016. 221-229. [5] Marz, Nathan, and James Warren. Big Data: Principles and best practices of scalable realtime data systems. Manning Publications Co., 2015. [6] Gandomi, Amir, and Murtaza Haider. "Beyond the hype: Big data concepts, methods, and analytics." International Journal of Information Management 35.2 (2015): 137-144. [7] Riggins, Frederick J., and Samuel Fosso Wamba. "Research Directions on the Adoption, Usage, and Impact of the Internet of Things through the Use of Big Data Analytics." System Sciences (HICSS), 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on. IEEE, 2015. [8] Sun, Peng, et al. "Research of Ice-melting Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things and Image Processing Techniques." 2015 International Conference on Mechatronics, Electronic, Industrial and 158 L. T. Yelome et. al / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 4 (5), May 2016 Control Engineering (MEIC-15). Atlantis Press, 2015. [9] Shiau, Wen-Lung, and Patrick YK Chau. "Understanding behavioral intention to use a cloud computing classroom: A multiple model comparison approach." Information & Management (2015). [10]Freet, David, et al. "Cloud forensics challenges from a service model standpoint: IaaS, PaaS and SaaS." Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Management of computational and collective intElligence in Digital EcoSystems. ACM, 2015.

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