An enhanced data security with compression for manets

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An enhanced data security with compression for manets. In this paper, we propose a novel secured compression algorithm for an ad hoc network in which the packets are encrypted and compressed. The decompression and decryption using the same algorithm happens by a perfect synchronization between the sender and the receiver. It is observed that the proposed security concept may increase the level of confidence in this network.
International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security
VOL. 2, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2014, 456–461
Available online at: www.ijcncs.org
ISSN 2308-9830
An Enhanced Data Security with Compression for MANETs
G.Soma Sekhar1 and Dr.E.Sreenivasa Reddy2
1 Research Scholar, Department of CSE, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur
2 Professor, College of Engineering, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur
E-mail: 1somasekharonline@yahoo.co.in, 2esreddy67@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Ad hoc networking is a wireless networking paradigm for self-organizing networks that until recently has
mainly been associated with military battlefield networks. However, with the availability of wireless
technologies such as Bluetooth and 802.11 and the development of the next generation networks, civilian
applications that exploit the advantages of ad hoc networking are being envisioned. So far most of the
research has been carried out to address the routing issues. Whereas other issues such as security, key
management and network addressing have received considerably less attention and these issues need to be
addressed before any successful applications will appear. In this paper, we propose a novel secured
compression algorithm for an ad hoc network in which the packets are encrypted and compressed. The
decompression and decryption using the same algorithm happens by a perfect synchronization between the
sender and the receiver. It is observed that the proposed security concept may increase the level of
confidence in this network.
Keywords: Compression, Decompression, Encryption, Decryption, MANETs.
1
INTRODUCTION
renders an ad hoc network susceptible
to
link
attacks
ranging
from passive eavesdropping to
An ad hoc network is a collection of computers
active impersonation, message replay, and message
(nodes) that cooperate to forward packets
for
distortion. Eavesdropping might give an adversary
each
other
over
a
multi-hop wireless network.
access to secret information, violating confidential-
The nodes in the network may move and radio
lity. Active attacks might allow the adversary to
propagation conditions may change at any time,
delete messages, to inject erroneous messages, to
creating
a
dynamic,
rapidly
changing
network
modify messages, and to impersonate a node, thus
topology. Ad hoc networks require no centralized
violating availability, integrity, authentication, and
administration or fixed network infrastructure such
non-repudiation. The cryptanalytic attacks depend
as base stations or access points, and can be quickly
on
nature
of
the
algorithm,
knowledge
of
the
and inexpensively set up as needed. They can thus
general characteristics of the plain text and sample
be used in scenarios where no infrastructure exists,
plain text - cipher text pairs. Therefore, to achieve
or where the existing infrastructure does not meet
high survivability, ad hoc networks should have
application
requirements
for
reasons
such
as
strong cryptographic algorithms for data security.
security, cost, or quality. Security is an important
Users
of
ad
hoc
networks
may
wish
to
use
issue for ad hoc networks, especially for security
demanding applications such as videoconferencing,
sensitive applications. In order to analyze security
Voice
over
IP,
and streaming media when
of a network, we need to know the basic requireme-
they are connected through an ad hoc network.
nts
of
a
secure
system
such
as
confidentiality,
Quality of Service (QoS) has been an important
integrity, availability, authenticity, accountability,
area of research in wired networks, as researchers
and non- repudiation.
have looked for solutions that provide acceptable
The salient features of ad hoc networks pose
levels
of
performance
for
these
types
of
both
challenges
and
opportunities
in
achieving
applications. When QoS routing is available in ad
these security goals.
First, use of wireless links
hoc
networks,
users
will
experience
better
457
G. S. Sekha and Dr. E. S. Reddy / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 2 (12), December 2014
performance while using these types of challenging
the destination so that even if a small number of
applications [1].
But
there
are some
constraints
nodes that are used to relay the message shares are
in
providing QoS
such
as Unpredictable Link
compromised, the secret message as a whole is not
Properties,
Hidden
Terminal
Problem,
Node
compromised.
The
simulation
results
show
that
Mobility,
Route
Maintenance,
Limited
Battery
SPREAD
can
provide
more
secure
data
Life, Security etc.
transmission when messages are transmitted across
There are many aspects to improve the battery
the insecure network [7].
life in which data compression technique is one [2].
The
Jigsaw
Puzzle
scheme
addresses
data
This is achieved by transmitting the compressed
confidentiality
and
integrity
in
a
MANET
data between the nodes (users) and retrieving the
environment
[8].
Multipath
routing
is
used
to
original
data
at
the
destination.
For
data
statistically
enhance
the
confidentiality
of
compression we have many algorithms in which
exchanged
messages
between
the
source
and
Lempel-Ziv- Welch (LZW) compression algorithm
destination nodes. The All-or-Nothing Transform is
[3]-[5]
is
the
best.
LZW
algorithm
is
efficient
applied to a secret message to guarantee that no
because the output resembles numerical data and
information
can be obtained
about the
message
also it
unless all of its pieces are known. The message is
Doesn’t
need
to
pass
the
string
table
to
the
then broken up into pieces by a jigsaw puzzle
decompression
code.
Due
to
compression,
the
algorithm, which is based on operations with roots
number of bits can be reduced to maximum extend
of polynomials. The pieces are transmitted across
so that the need of memory and bandwidth are very
multiple
node-disjoint
paths.
A
Message
less.
Also,
the
compressed
text
resembles
a
Authentication Code (MAC)
is transmitted with
scramble message and an attacker in middle cannot
each piece to provide
data
integrity
and
origin
able to understand. Therefore, the data compression
authentication.
Thus,
it
becomes
impossible
to
not only reduces the size of the original text, but
compromise a secret message unless an adversary
also gives data security.
can eavesdrop close to the source or destination or
Section
2
describes
the
security
in
Ad
hoc
simultaneously listen on all of the paths.
Networks and section 3 describes motivation and
The authors B.Ruxanayasmin, et al, implemented
proposed work. Section 4 describes the Simulation
a novel scheme to eliminate the redundant hardware
results and section 5 concludes.
as well as the redundant transformed data which
reduces
system
complexity,
memory,
bandwidth
2
RELATED WORK
and
power. The proposed work is the combination
of cryptography and compression algorithms. In the
The authors M.
Madhurya,
et
al,
proposed a
first stage, the incoming bit stream is divided into
novel
security
model
for
MANETS
with
the
packets of size 128 bits each, and performs one‟s
objective
to
achieve
data
confidentiality
and
complement on the bits. The one‟s
complemented
authentication
by
novel
cryptographic
algorithm
data
is
XORed
with secret key of 128 bit size.
and
also
to
secure
the
routing
protocol
by
The
encrypted
text
is
compressed
using
LZW
minimizing
the
malicious
nodes.
The
proposed
algorithm and transmitted. At receiver, the reverse
methodology was investigated on the performance
operation is performed to get back the original data
of
AODV
with
CBR traffic. They have analyzed
[9].
the protocol performance with both data security as
The authors Diaa Salama, et al, [10] proposed
well as with Disturbance Detection Algorithm and
energy
consumption
of
different
common
proved
that
the
performance
of
the
network
is
symmetric key encryptions on handheld devices. It
increased [6].
is found that after only
The authors Wenjing Lou, et al., proposed a
600 encryptions of a 5 MB file using Triple- DES
novel scheme, Security Protocol for REliable dAta
the remaining battery power is 45% and subsequent
Delivery
(SPREAD),
to
enhance
the
data
encryptions are not possible as the battery dies
confidentiality service in a mobile ad hoc network.
rapidly.
The proposed SPREAD scheme aims to provide
further protection to secret messages from being
3
MOTIVATION & PROPOSED MODEL
compromised
(or
eavesdropped)
when
they
are
delivered across the insecure network. The basic
In
order
to
secure
the
ad
hoc
network,
we
idea is to transform
a
secret
message
into
proposed
a
security
model
with
following
multiple shares by secret sharing schemes and then
motivation.
deliver the shares via multiple independent paths to
458
G. S. Sekha and Dr. E. S. Reddy / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 2 (12), December 2014
• Due to compression the Plain text may not be
The
Fig.1
shows
the
flowchart
of
the
recognized when the encrypted data
uncovered in the brute force cryptanalysis.
is
proposed work, in which simple cryptographic
technique is combined with LZW algorithm and
named as Secured LZW (SLZW) algorithm. It has
• Compressed data packets are encrypted using
minimum number of iterations and uur intention is
cryptographic algorithms
• Due to compression technique
width efficiency increases.
the band-
to achieve security by using simple algorithms that
involve small inherent delays rather than resorting
to complex algorithms, which occupy considerable
memory and delays.
• Compression decreases the power consum-
ption, which increases the battery life [2].
The principle in LZW is always tries to output
codes for strings that are already known. And each
time a new code is output, a new string is added to
• Encryption and decryption plays a vital role to
the string table
secure data.
• To eliminate the redundant hardware as well as
the redundant transformed data this reduces
system complexity, memory, bandwidth and
power.
The
main
objective
of
proposed
model
is
to
improvise the existing data security approaches for
MANETs to suit technology enhancements and to
study the network performance. In this model a
simple cryptographic algorithm is combined with
compression algorithm instead of using separate
algorithms.
Each time a data packet is sent to the
application layer, it is encrypted and compressed
using SLZW algorithm, and the reveres process is
applied at receiver. When responses are analyzed
they will give a random pattern and difficult to
know neither algorithms nor keys.
The proposed
work is implemented using simple algorithms; to
overcome
the
passive attacks,
cryptanalysis
and
brute
force
analysis,
and
this
model
can
be
extended by increasing more number of iterations.
3.1 Secured LZW (SLZW) Algorithm
The
SLZW
algorithm
is
the
combination
of
cryptography and compression techniques. In the
first stage, the incoming bit stream is divided into
packets
of
size
128
bits
each,
and
performs
encryption using a symmetric key. The encrypted
text is compressed using LZW algorithm and
Fig. 1. SLZW Encryption Algorithm
transmitted. At receiver, the reverse operation is
performed to get back the original data. By
implementing this algorithm, we can
The SLZW is the combination of cryptographic
algorithm with compression technique. In this, the
incoming data is data packets of size 128 bits and
• Protect the information from attackers
• Reduce the memory usage and trans-
each packet is encrypted with SLZW. In the first
iteration, the 128 bits are divided into two halves of
64 bits each and circular rotation (either left or
mission bandwidth
• Transmitting less number of bits consumes less
right) is performed on each 64 bits. In the second
iteration, the circularly rotated bits are combined
into 128 bits and perform XOR operation with
power
private key.
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An enhanced data security with compression for manets. In this paper, we propose a novel secured compression algorithm for an ad hoc network in which the packets are encrypted and compressed. The decompression and decryption using the same algorithm happens by a perfect synchronization between the sender and the receiver. It is observed that the proposed security concept may increase the level of confidence in this network..

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International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security VOL. 2, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2014, 456–461 Available online at: www.ijcncs.org ISSN 2308-9830 An Enhanced Data Security with Compression for MANETs G.Soma Sekhar1 and Dr.E.Sreenivasa Reddy2 1 Research Scholar, Department of CSE, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur 2 Professor, College of Engineering, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur E-mail: 1somasekharonline@yahoo.co.in, 2esreddy67@gmail.com ABSTRACT Ad hoc networking is a wireless networking paradigm for self-organizing networks that until recently has mainly been associated with military battlefield networks. However, with the availability of wireless technologies such as Bluetooth and 802.11 and the development of the next generation networks, civilian applications that exploit the advantages of ad hoc networking are being envisioned. So far most of the research has been carried out to address the routing issues. Whereas other issues such as security, key management and network addressing have received considerably less attention and these issues need to be addressed before any successful applications will appear. In this paper, we propose a novel secured compression algorithm for an ad hoc network in which the packets are encrypted and compressed. The decompression and decryption using the same algorithm happens by a perfect synchronization between the sender and the receiver. It is observed that the proposed security concept may increase the level of confidence in this network. Keywords: Compression, Decompression, Encryption, Decryption, MANETs. 1 INTRODUCTION An ad hoc network is a collection of computers (nodes) that cooperate to forward packets for each other over a multi-hop wireless network. The nodes in the network may move and radio propagation conditions may change at any time, creating a dynamic, rapidly changing network topology. Ad hoc networks require no centralized administration or fixed network infrastructure such as base stations or access points, and can be quickly and inexpensively set up as needed. They can thus be used in scenarios where no infrastructure exists, or where the existing infrastructure does not meet application requirements for reasons such as security, cost, or quality. Security is an important issue for ad hoc networks, especially for security sensitive applications. In order to analyze security of a network, we need to know the basic requireme-nts of a secure system such as confidentiality, integrity, availability, authenticity, accountability, and non- repudiation. The salient features of ad hoc networks pose both challenges and opportunities in achieving these security goals. First, use of wireless links renders an ad hoc network susceptible to link attacks ranging from passive eavesdropping to active impersonation, message replay, and message distortion. Eavesdropping might give an adversary access to secret information, violating confidential-lity. Active attacks might allow the adversary to delete messages, to inject erroneous messages, to modify messages, and to impersonate a node, thus violating availability, integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation. The cryptanalytic attacks depend on nature of the algorithm, knowledge of the general characteristics of the plain text and sample plain text - cipher text pairs. Therefore, to achieve high survivability, ad hoc networks should have strong cryptographic algorithms for data security. Users of ad hoc networks may wish to use demanding applications such as videoconferencing, Voice over IP, and streaming media when they are connected through an ad hoc network. Quality of Service (QoS) has been an important area of research in wired networks, as researchers have looked for solutions that provide acceptable levels of performance for these types of applications. When QoS routing is available in ad hoc networks, users will experience better 457 G. S. Sekha and Dr. E. S. Reddy / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 2 (12), December 2014 performance while using these types of challenging applications [1]. But there are some constraints in providing QoS such as Unpredictable Link Properties, Hidden Terminal Problem, Node Mobility, Route Maintenance, Limited Battery Life, Security etc. There are many aspects to improve the battery life in which data compression technique is one [2]. This is achieved by transmitting the compressed data between the nodes (users) and retrieving the original data at the destination. For data compression we have many algorithms in which Lempel-Ziv- Welch (LZW) compression algorithm [3]-[5] is the best. LZW algorithm is efficient because the output resembles numerical data and also it Doesn’t need to pass the string table to the decompression code. Due to compression, the number of bits can be reduced to maximum extend so that the need of memory and bandwidth are very less. Also, the compressed text resembles a scramble message and an attacker in middle cannot able to understand. Therefore, the data compression not only reduces the size of the original text, but also gives data security. Section 2 describes the security in Ad hoc Networks and section 3 describes motivation and proposed work. Section 4 describes the Simulation results and section 5 concludes. 2 RELATED WORK The authors M. Madhurya, et al, proposed a novel security model for MANETS with the objective to achieve data confidentiality and authentication by novel cryptographic algorithm and also to secure the routing protocol by minimizing the malicious nodes. The proposed methodology was investigated on the performance of AODV with CBR traffic. They have analyzed the protocol performance with both data security as well as with Disturbance Detection Algorithm and proved that the performance of the network is increased [6]. The authors Wenjing Lou, et al., proposed a novel scheme, Security Protocol for REliable dAta Delivery (SPREAD), to enhance the data confidentiality service in a mobile ad hoc network. The proposed SPREAD scheme aims to provide further protection to secret messages from being compromised (or eavesdropped) when they are delivered across the insecure network. The basic idea is to transform a secret message into multiple shares by secret sharing schemes and then deliver the shares via multiple independent paths to the destination so that even if a small number of nodes that are used to relay the message shares are compromised, the secret message as a whole is not compromised. The simulation results show that SPREAD can provide more secure data transmission when messages are transmitted across the insecure network [7]. The Jigsaw Puzzle scheme addresses data confidentiality and integrity in a MANET environment [8]. Multipath routing is used to statistically enhance the confidentiality of exchanged messages between the source and destination nodes. The All-or-Nothing Transform is applied to a secret message to guarantee that no information can be obtained about the message unless all of its pieces are known. The message is then broken up into pieces by a jigsaw puzzle algorithm, which is based on operations with roots of polynomials. The pieces are transmitted across multiple node-disjoint paths. A Message Authentication Code (MAC) is transmitted with each piece to provide data integrity and origin authentication. Thus, it becomes impossible to compromise a secret message unless an adversary can eavesdrop close to the source or destination or simultaneously listen on all of the paths. The authors B.Ruxanayasmin, et al, implemented a novel scheme to eliminate the redundant hardware as well as the redundant transformed data which reduces system complexity, memory, bandwidth and power. The proposed work is the combination of cryptography and compression algorithms. In the first stage, the incoming bit stream is divided into packets of size 128 bits each, and performs one‟s complement on the bits. The one‟s complemented data is XORed with secret key of 128 bit size. The encrypted text is compressed using LZW algorithm and transmitted. At receiver, the reverse operation is performed to get back the original data [9]. The authors Diaa Salama, et al, [10] proposed energy consumption of different common symmetric key encryptions on handheld devices. It is found that after only 600 encryptions of a 5 MB file using Triple- DES the remaining battery power is 45% and subsequent encryptions are not possible as the battery dies rapidly. 3 MOTIVATION & PROPOSED MODEL In order to secure the ad hoc network, we proposed a security model with following motivation. 458 G. S. Sekha and Dr. E. S. Reddy / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 2 (12), December 2014 • Due to compression the Plain text may not be recognized when the encrypted data is uncovered in the brute force cryptanalysis. • Compressed data packets are encrypted using cryptographic algorithms • Due to compression technique the band-width efficiency increases. • Compression decreases the power consum-ption, which increases the battery life [2]. • Encryption and decryption plays a vital role to secure data. • To eliminate the redundant hardware as well as the redundant transformed data this reduces system complexity, memory, bandwidth and power. The main objective of proposed model is to improvise the existing data security approaches for MANETs to suit technology enhancements and to study the network performance. In this model a simple cryptographic algorithm is combined with compression algorithm instead of using separate algorithms. Each time a data packet is sent to the application layer, it is encrypted and compressed using SLZW algorithm, and the reveres process is applied at receiver. When responses are analyzed they will give a random pattern and difficult to know neither algorithms nor keys. The proposed work is implemented using simple algorithms; to overcome the passive attacks, cryptanalysis and brute force analysis, and this model can be extended by increasing more number of iterations. 3.1 Secured LZW (SLZW) Algorithm The SLZW algorithm is the combination of cryptography and compression techniques. In the first stage, the incoming bit stream is divided into packets of size 128 bits each, and performs encryption using a symmetric key. The encrypted text is compressed using LZW algorithm and transmitted. At receiver, the reverse operation is performed to get back the original data. By implementing this algorithm, we can • Protect the information from attackers • Reduce the memory usage and trans-mission bandwidth • Transmitting less number of bits consumes less power The Fig.1 shows the flowchart of the proposed work, in which simple cryptographic technique is combined with LZW algorithm and named as Secured LZW (SLZW) algorithm. It has minimum number of iterations and uur intention is to achieve security by using simple algorithms that involve small inherent delays rather than resorting to complex algorithms, which occupy considerable memory and delays. The principle in LZW is always tries to output codes for strings that are already known. And each time a new code is output, a new string is added to the string table Fig. 1. SLZW Encryption Algorithm The SLZW is the combination of cryptographic algorithm with compression technique. In this, the incoming data is data packets of size 128 bits and each packet is encrypted with SLZW. In the first iteration, the 128 bits are divided into two halves of 64 bits each and circular rotation (either left or right) is performed on each 64 bits. In the second iteration, the circularly rotated bits are combined into 128 bits and perform XOR operation with private key. 459 G. S. Sekha and Dr. E. S. Reddy / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 2 (12), December 2014 In the third iteration, the XORed 128 bits are divided into 64 bits and perform circular rotation. The output of third iteration is named as cipher text and it is compressed using LZW principle. The decryption algorithm needs to be able to take the stream of codes output from the compression algorithm, and use them to exactly recreate the input stream as shown in Fig.2. One reason for the efficiency of the LZW algorithm is that it does not need to pass the string table to the decompression code. The table can be built exactly as it was during compression, using the input stream as data. This is possible because the compression algorithm always outputs the STRING and CHARACTER components of a code before it uses it in the output stream. This means that the compressed data is not burdened with carrying a large string translation table. After decompression, the data is decrypted with secret key yields the original data. 4 RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS The proposed model is simulated using Glomosim simulator [11], implemented in AODV routing protocol. The simulation is done for a network having 50 mobile nodes, which move over an area of 1000 x 1000 m2 with a certain speed. Table 1 gives the system parameter values used in the analysis and simulations. Table 1: Simulation Parameters Simulation Time 10 Min Bandwidth 2 Mbps Frequency of 2.4 GHz Simulation Area 1000 m x 1000 m Number of Nodes 50 Offered Traffic 12 packets/sec Radio Range Application Transport Network MAC 250 meters CBR TCP AODV 802.11 4.1 Performance Evaluation The following metrics were used to evaluate the performance of the data security. The following metrics are chosen to evaluate the efficiency in addition to the effectiveness of the protocols. I. Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR): Measured as the ratio of the data packets delivered to the receivers to those data packets expected to be delivered. II. (End-to-End Delay: Measured as the time interval from the moment that the source node sends a first message until the moment that the destination node in the network receives this last message. It also includes all possible delays caused by queuing at the interface, retransmission delays, and propagation and transfer times. Fig. 2. SLZW Decryption Algorithm 460 G. S. Sekha and Dr. E. S. Reddy / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 2 (12), December 2014 algorithm shows better results compared to MLZW algorithm. Therefore the Fig.4 concludes that by using the SLZW algorithm, the transmission delay can be minimized. 4.2 Effect of Key length variation We compare the change in Security performance by using different key lengths for proposed algorithm. Graph is plotted between the time required to find the correct key and different key lengths. We have taken six different scenarios by increasing the length of the key. Fig. 3. Packet Delivery Ratio Vs Node Speed Table 2: Different Key lengths The performance of packet delivery ratio under different speed is as shown in Fig.3. It is clearly shown for low speed; the routing protocol with SLZW delivers data packets successfully. For medium mobility, as the speed increases PDR slightly reduced due to packet dropping and further reduce for high speed. Whereas the PDR is much Scenario 1 2 3 4 5 6 Key Length 8 bit 16 bit 24 bit 32 bit 40 bit 48 bit less when the data packets are transmitted without SLZW algorithm. The following graph for scenarios as stated in Table 2. The figure 5 shows that the Number of seconds required to breach the corresponding algorithm against brute force attack. Fig. 4. Average end-to-end delay Vs Number of Nodes Fig. 4 shows, the numbers of nodes through which the text is sent is plotted in the x- axis, where as time taken to transmit the specified data from the source node to destination node is plotted in the y-axis. It is observed that as the number of nodes increases, the time taken to transmit data packets is high in the case when the compression technique is not used. With the implementation of SLZW algorithm, it is observed that the time taken to transmit data packets is much less. The SLZW Fig. 5. Brute Force Analysis Test The above graph shows that the time taken to find a key by the brute force analysis on proposed model for different key lengths. From this graph it is analyzed that time taken by brute force attack 461 G. S. Sekha and Dr. E. S. Reddy / International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, 2 (12), December 2014 increases exponentially with increase in the key length. 5 CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK Thus the proposed security scheme with the combination on encryption & compression impro-ves the security of the network and minimi-zes the memory requirement, bandwidth and power requirement. Using the compression technique and security concept it concludes that any text or document file can be compressed to a maximum of one-third of its original size without any loss of data. From our study we conclude that the propo-sed security concept may increase the level of confidence in this network and the strength of the SLZW can increase by increasing the number of iteration levels by which the Brute force analysis may take longer time to breach the algorithm. This work can be extended for implementing: • Authentication when introduced before the encryption and decryption process will make a more complete security model. • Power control protocols to reduce the power, which in turn increases the battery life. • Reduce Network contention • QoS Topology Control in Ad Hoc • Wireless Networks 6 REFERENCES [1] Prasant Mohapatra, Jian Li and Chao Gui, “QoS in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, National Science Foundation Magazine, December 2002. [2] Kenneth Barr and Krste Asanovi´c., “Energy Aware Lossless Data Compression”, May 2003. [3] Dave Marshall, “Lempel-Ziv-Welch Algorithm”, April 2001. [4] Mark Nelson, “LZW Data Compression”, Dr. Dobb’s Journal, October 1989. [5] Sooraj Bhat, “LZW Data Compression”, March 2002. [6] M.Madhurya, B.Ananda Krishna and T.Subhashini “Implementation of Enhanced Security Algorithms in Mobile Ad hoc Networks”, International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, 2014, 2, 30-37 [7] Wenjing Lou, Wei Liu and Yuguang Fang, “SPREAD: Enhancing Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2004), Hong Kong, China, March 2004 [8] R. A. Vasudevan and S. 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