Tài liệu Sức khỏe phụ nữ
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Hướng dẫn quốc gia - Dinh dưỡng cho phụ nữ có thai và bà mẹ cho con nhằm nâng cao kiến thức, cải thiện hoạt động tư vấn dinh dưỡng của cán bộ y tế, Vụ Sức khỏe Bà mẹ Trẻ em, Bộ Y tế biên soạn “Hướng dẫn quốc gia về dinh dưỡng cho phụ nữ có thai và bà mẹ cho con bú”, với sự tham gia của các giáo sư, bác sĩ đầu ngành đang công tác trong lĩnh vực dinh dưỡng, sản phụ khoa và nhi khoa với sự hỗ trợ về tài chính và kỹ thuật của Abbott Laboratories.
5/5/2020 12:17:55 AM +00:00
This study therefore was carried out to determine the prevalence of Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women and to isolate, identify the causative organisms; and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated pathogens. A total of 200 pregnant women who came for ante-natal checkup in outpatient department at Govt. Maternity Hospital, Nayapool. Hyderabad were studied over a period of one year.
5/5/2020 12:10:41 AM +00:00
Women of Rajasthan has to perform agricultural practices and contribute a major share of family economy in terms of food grains, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, milk, wool, fuel, fiber, timber etc. The average sex ratio of the region is low. The literacy status of the women is also lower than their male counterpart. The participation of women in the tertiary sector such as medical, teaching, administrative and other official services is lower than the male population. In this part of area, excess workloads coupled with inadequate nutritious food have led normal to severe under-nutrition problem among the women. Women of this rural based region are busy since early morning to late night in various household activities. Consequently 42 % of the total surveyed women fall under the grip of moderate to severe malnutrition. As a result of malnutrition mothers gave birth to low weight babies. An attempt has been made here to study the demographic profile and malnutrition status of the women in the Rajasthan region.
5/5/2020 12:10:27 AM +00:00
Science and technology have had unprecedented impact on economic growth and social development. Knowledge has become a source of economic light and power. This has led to increased restrictions on sharing of knowledge, to new norms of intellectual property rights, and to global trade and technology control regimes. Scientific and Technological developments today also have deep ethical, legal and social implications. The study was conducted in Haryana State. Four districts, two each form eastern and western agro climatic zones were selected randomly.
5/4/2020 11:59:55 PM +00:00
The fertility rate in Rwanda decreased from 6.1 in 2005 to 4.6 in 2010 and to 4.2 in 2015. Widespread use of contraceptives has played a main role in this decrease. A cross sectional study was conducted on knowledge, attitude and practices of family planning methods on 426 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in six health facilities in Rwanda. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning methods and to determine the past and future intent of post-partum contraceptive use and factors associated with discontinuation of family planning methods among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Rwanda.
5/4/2020 11:52:33 PM +00:00
Maternal infections have been considered as one of the significant factors in the causation of bad obstetric history. Infections caused by Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex virus are benign. However, they may lead to serious complications, especially when they are acquired during the first trimester of pregnancy. These are associated with inadvertent outcomes like multiple abortions, intra-uterine fetal death, stillbirths and congenital malformations. Data regarding the detection of these infections is scanty as the risk requirement of expensive commercial diagnostic kit- Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex IgM antibodies. This study was undertaken to assess the utility in pregnant women with bad obstetric history. The present study was undertaken as the case-control study at Princess Esra Hospital, Hyderabad between January 2015 and December 2017. A total of 50 pregnant women of age range in their first trimester attending Ante Nata Clinic were included along with 35 age matched control pregnant women with no bad obstetric history.
5/4/2020 6:25:58 PM +00:00
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections. Enteric bacteria predominantly Escherichia coli) remain the most frequent cause of UTIs, although the distribution of pathogens that cause UTIs is changing. The study was based on primary survey to five different slums (Ravindrapuri extension, Nagwan, Bajardeehan, Batuapura and Ghasiyari Tola) of Varanasi city. This study is an attempt to determine the UTI status in slums of Varanasi city.
5/4/2020 4:24:56 PM +00:00
Vaginitis is inflammation of cervical mucosa. Women who present with vaginal symptoms often complain of an abnormal discharge and possibly other symptoms such as an offensive odour or itching. The most common cause for vaginitis are Trichomoniasis, Candida Vaginitis (Moniliasis) and Bacterial Vaginosis. Vaginal discharge may be bloodstained or otherwise. Pathologically significant vaginal discharge can be white, cream, yellow or greenish discharge. Women coming to the outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department with complaints of white discharge per vagina were approached, explained about the purpose of the study and informed consent was taken. A non-lubricated Sim‟s speculum was inserted into the vagina after keeping the patient in dorsal position.
5/4/2020 4:04:26 PM +00:00
Even though cervical cancer is quite a common cancer in India, there are limited studies on the knowledge and awareness about the disease. It is important to assess the knowledge among the screening populations have about cervical cancer and Human papillomavirus (HPV) and their attitudes toward HPV vaccination, as it will directly influence their decision-making for the acceptability of healthcare programs.
5/4/2020 1:19:17 PM +00:00
C.trachomatis is one of the most frequently detected sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen as per CDC. Chlamydial infection has major clinical and epidemiological significance in women. This study aims to determine the magnitude of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women and study associated sociodemographic factors. Prospective cross-sectional hospital based study. The study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee. Two endocervical specimen were collected aseptically by per-speculum examination from 120 women aged 18-45 years. Of these, 90 patients presenting with infertility (primary or secondary) were taken as study group and 30 healthy term pregnant women of similar age group as control.
5/4/2020 12:22:28 PM +00:00
Worldwide, urinary tract infection (UTIs) is one of the most common bacterial infections in women and it’s depending on the individual’s wash practices and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to assess hygiene and wash practices and the associated factors of urinary tract infections in non-pregnant women, Odisha, in order to find this a cross-sectional study was carried out at Bhubaneswar, Capital Hospital from March 2015 to March 2017 in non-pregnant women of age group between 20-65 years.
5/4/2020 12:20:33 PM +00:00
The aim was to assess the comparative efficacy of intrauterine administration of hydrogen peroxide and povidone iodine solutions for the treatment of endometritis in indigenous mares. Twenty five mares with the history of regular estrus in a breeding season and turbid vaginal mucous discharge during estrus were included in the study.
5/4/2020 12:20:21 PM +00:00
Gestational age, synonymous with menstrual age, is defined in weeks beginning from the day of the last menstrual period prior to conception. Correct determination of gestational age is basic to obstetric care as it is very important in a number of circumstances. The study was undertaken at Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences and Post Graduate Research Centre, Hyderabad from June 2011 to December 2012. The study was a prospective study which included one hundred and fifty pregnant women who attended the antenatal outpatient of the Obstetrics Department.
5/4/2020 12:15:42 PM +00:00
To optimize ultrasound and doppler signs for diagnosis of placenta accrete. prospective observational study. The method is to observe 30 pregnant females who had anterior low lying placenta or placenta previa with previous cesarean section were examined by ultrasound and Doppler at 20-24 wks and followed up every four weeks till termination of pregnancy by cesarean section for gray scale and colour Doppler signs of placenta accrete. The study resulted in loss of retroplacental clear space sign was found in 28 patients (93.33%) at 28 weeks of gestation and in all patients (100%) at 32 and 36 wks of gestation. Also in Doppler signs,placental lacunae sign was found in 28 cases (93.33%) at 32 wks and 30 cases (100.00%) at 36 wks of gestation.
5/4/2020 11:30:02 AM +00:00
Ergonomics analyses the relationship between the human body and the objects we use and the spaces where we live and work in order to optimise movements and avoid unnatural postures that could be harmful to our health. An Indian woman spends on an average 5-6 hours in her kitchen which may amount to approximately one fourth of her life span. In the traditional Indian kitchen, due to unawareness of ergonomics women’s usually performed the various kitchen activities works was usually in a prolonged squatting posture and sitting on patra or pihri which used to pose a number of health hazards. Since sitting requires the muscles to hold the trunk, neck and shoulders in a fixed position and a fixed working position squeezes the blood vessels in the muscles reducing the blood supply to the working muscles just when they need it the most. An insufficient blood supply accelerates fatigue and makes the muscles prone to injury.
5/4/2020 11:26:34 AM +00:00
Evidences have shown that Active learning methods are directly associated with students‟ engagement in the process of learning and there by improvement in their learning outcome. To test this empirically, the researcher chose to work upon testing the efficacy of small group discussion brining change in pupil‟s learning outcome as compared to lecture alone. For the purpose, test material on „importance of protein for human body‟ was developed and knowledge test prepared accordingly. The research design selected for the study was pre-test post-test control group design. Control and experimental groups each of 25 intermediate level students were farmed.
5/4/2020 11:24:50 AM +00:00
Menopause is the period of transition in the life of women during which several physiological changes occurs. This period not only marks the end of reproductive cycle of women but also makes them vulnerable to several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastritis, asthmas, liver disease etc. Food and other lifestyle factors greatly affect the health status of post menopausal women. This demands special care and attention to the women during this phase. The present study was carried out in Jorhat city of Assam with a sample size of 100 with the aim to assess the nutritional status of post menopausal women. Simple random sampling was employed for selection of sample. Only those women who have attained menopause were selected for the study.
5/4/2020 11:06:06 AM +00:00
Vaginitis in women can be caused by aerobic bacteria, Trichomonas vaginalis, yeast or it can be bacterial vaginosis which can lead to various gynaecological and obstetrical complications. This is a retrospective study aimed at determining the prevalence of vaginitis due to various microorganisms. A total of 500 women in the reproductive age group attending the tertiary care hospital over the last 2 years were included in the study. The vaginal swabs of these patients were subjected to Gram‟s staining & wet mount to identify T.vaginalis, budding yeast and clue cells.
3/30/2020 4:17:10 PM +00:00
The modern day woman faces various psychosocial barriers during lactation stage, in addition to the emotional and physical to assess clothing requirements. The problems and needs for clothing requirements of lactating mothers were identified by personally interviewing the subject. It was realized that there is great potential for the development and improvement of existing apparels for lactating stage. Designs were developed and garments were constructed for lactating mothers by incorporated garment challenges. A questionnaire was developed for personal interview.
3/30/2020 2:56:04 PM +00:00
Menopause is one of the stages of life for women that cause extensive variety of symptoms, effects, and sometimes restraints on the quality of life of post menopausal women. The present study was designed to assess the physical and psychological changes experienced by Postmenopausal women of urban and rural area of Hisar district Haryana instantly after menopause. The study included 200 women (100 urban and 100 rural) in the age group of 45 to 60 years having natural menopause more than one year. All the subjects were permanent residents of the Haryana. During study various physical and psychological changes felt by women were observed which affects the health status of post menopausal women. All such type of changes perceived by women was asked from each subject by paying repeated visits to the study subjects.
3/30/2020 10:43:27 AM +00:00
Myiasis is a term used to describe the invasion of tissues or organs of vertebrates with the larvae of dipterous flies. It is largely a problem in livestock, human infestations in rural tropical areas of the globe is uncommon. Myiasis may involve the skin, eyes, nasal passages, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Urinary myiasis is caused mainly by larvae of Fannia scalaris, Musca, Sarcophaga, Lucilia, Wohlfahrtia, Calliphora.
3/30/2020 10:39:34 AM +00:00
The outbreak of mastitis lead to heavy economic losses in dairy industries by deteriorating the quality and quantity of milk. Inappropriate usage of antimicrobials such as wrong dose, drug or duration may contribute to the increase in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) without improving the outcome of treatment. Mastilep, a non-antibiotic polyherbal gel containing herbal ingredients is generally applied on udder and teats as precautionary measure and for treatment of subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis as a co therapeutic medicine along with the prescribed doses of antibiotics.
3/30/2020 10:37:43 AM +00:00
Embryonic diapause is a phenomenon characterized by the temporary suspension of embryo development and delayed implantation in the uterus. It is an interesting reproductive strategy that has been frequently exploited across the animal kingdom. Mammalian embryonic diapause is categorized as obligate and facultative and broadly divided into three phases: entry into diapause, maintenance and termination of diapause. Obligate diapause occurs in every gestation of some species, while facultative diapause occurs in others, associated with metabolic stress, usually lactation. Embryonic diapause has been identified in over 100 animal species and the onset, maintenance and escape from diapause are regulated by cascades of environmental, hypophyseal, ovarian and uterine mechanisms that vary among species and between the obligate and facultative animal.
3/30/2020 8:17:33 AM +00:00
The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and syphilis in antenatal patient is of paramount importance for health planner and program managers. This study was conducted to assess to know the seroprevalnce of Hepatitis B Hepatitis C and syphilis in antenatal patient and to re-evaluate the need for routine antenatal care screening. All samples were tested to detect HbsAg by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), anti HCV antibody by ELISA and antibodies to Treponema palladium by qualitative Rapid Plasma Regain (RPR). Total 1000 samples were tested. Out of which seropositivity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was 1.9%, hepatitis C virus (HCV) was 0.2% and syphilis was 0.4%. Out of 1000 samples no coinfection was found between hepatitis B hepatitis C and syphilis. This study can helpful to health care professionals to treat antenatal patient more efficiently. Early diagnosis of infection in antenatal period is helpful for prevention of transmission, Proper management and early initiation of treatment to new born.
3/30/2020 2:56:17 AM +00:00
Nutritional status of girl students is of more importance as they are future mothers and the food choices they make had a major effect on their health. The main aim of the study was to assess the direct and indirect factors affecting the nutritional status of girls residing in hostel of GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, and Uttarakhand which include the assessment of dietary intake using 24 hour recall method, anthropometric measurements, assessment of food habits, knowledge, attitude and practice. For the purpose 100 girls from university hostel were selected. The diet of girls was found adequate in protein (81%), fat (88%), calcium (78%), iron (76%), ascorbic acid (95%) and zinc (80%) with regard to RDA except beta carotene which was only 16 percent adequate with respect to RDA. Regarding nutrient adequacy fat intake of the respondents was 88 percent adequate whereas protein was found to be 87.63 per cent adequate and energy value of the respondents were found to be 80.25 per cent adequate which indicates that their nutrient intake was fairly adequate. Consumption of fast food was very high among hostel girls. Data regarding skipping of meals indicates that majority (45%) of girls skip breakfast than other meals and 83 percent of the respondents were influenced by their likes and dislikes while choosing their food. Regarding their knowledge, attitude and practice, 60 per cent of the girls possess good knowledge and 81 percent carry right attitude regarding nutrition but only 8 percent practice good nutrition habits. Data on level of physical activity reveals that 68 per cent of the hostel girls were indulged in different kinds of physical activity. Thus the study indicates that the dietary adequacy of girls was fairly good but frequent consumption of fast among girls put them forward towards various lifestyle diseases.
3/30/2020 1:15:55 AM +00:00
The study deals with the prevalence of menopause and menopausal problems among women in Dharwad and Bagalkote districts. Through Self Help Groups (SHG) and door to door survey conducted along with concerned information among 480 respondents in eight villages from two districts. The women who experienced menopause for at least one year with age ranges 35-55 years in rural and urban areas were considered for the study. The prevalence of the study found to be 44 per cent out of 9512 contacted adult women. In urban area 76-88 per cent of women attained natural menopause in Dharwad and Bagalkote districts respectively but in Bagalokte district 23.38 per cent of them attained menopause due to hysterectomy. Most common menopausal problems included were joint and muscular discomfort (68.33%), sleep problems (51.66%), hot flushes (37.50%), sweating (6.67%) and heart discomfort (9.31%). Majority (44.17%) of the women experienced moderate level of somatic problems in both districts. The respondents had moderate to severe level of psychological problems (40%) and remaining 44 per cent experienced mild to moderate level of urogenital problems. There was a significant difference between menopausal problems it indicating that the women experienced more of somatic problems followed by psychological and urogenital problems. Age, education, occupation and socio-economic status of the respondents were negatively significantly related with menopausal problems. The study concluded that to overcome existing somatic, psychological and urogenital menopausal problems educational awareness and self-coping methods for rural and urban women are necessary.
3/30/2020 12:58:15 AM +00:00
Maternal infections caused by TORCH [Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV)] are the major causes of bad obstetric history. The aim of this study was to evaluate the age wise seroprevalence and to assess the seropositivity of Toxoplasma and Rubella among TORCH infections in pregnant women with BOH. A total of 90 sera samples are collected from pregnant women with bad obstetrical history attending the antenatal clinic in Govt. Maternity Hospital, Sultan Bazar, Kothi, Hyderabad. Patients included in this study were those with history of stillbirths, habitual abortions, intrauterine growth retardation and neonatal deaths. Serological analysis of Toxoplasma and Rubella among TORCH infections by IgM and IgG was carried out at Regional STD laboratory of Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad. In the present study it was found that the prevalence of TORCH infection was more common in 19 - 24 years - 51 (56.7%). Total study population majority of the pregnant females had previous history of two or more spontaneous abortions 63 (70%) followed by intrauterine deaths 40 (44.4%). Among these patients 11 (12.2%) had history of both spontaneous abortions and intrauterine deaths. Of the 90 BOH cases, serological evidence for any one of the TORCH agents was detected in 80 (88.8%) pregnant females. Seronegativity to IgM/IgG was observed in ten cases (11.1%). The IgM / IgG antibody positivity to Toxoplasma gondii 5 (5.6%) / 28 (31.1%), Rubella 8 (8.9%) / 48 (53.3%). In the present study out of 90 antenatal women with BOH 28 (31.1%), were seropositive for Toxoplasma specific IgG, 5 (5.6%) cases were seropositive for Toxoplasma specific IgM antibodies and 1 case (1.1%) was seropositive for both IgG and IgM. Majority of seropositive Toxoplasma and Rubella cases were seen in the age group 19 - 24 years.
3/29/2020 9:02:59 PM +00:00
A rare case of dystocia due to Schistosomus reflexus Holstein Friesian fetal monster in a Gir heifer and its successful per-vaginal delivery is reported.
3/29/2020 8:57:55 PM +00:00
The main objective of this study was to assess nutritional status of the study subject. This was a cross-sectional study. Four hundred and two females (i.e. 15-49 age groups) were selected from 342 households for assessment of nutritional status. Stratified random sampling method was used for selection of seven villages. Families were selected by using Probability Proportion to size sampling technique. The primary tool in this study was predesigned and pretested interview schedule. Height, weight recording, Clinical examinations and body type of females were the part of the study. One hundred and three study subjects were randomly selected and haemoglobin was estimated. Slightly less than half (46.8%) study females were short stature and thin. Clinical anaemia (67.7 %), Vitamin A (15.9%) and vitamin C deficiency 11.2% were common nutritional deficiency diseases. The mean weight of the study subjects was 41.5 Kg. The vast majority (approximately 85%) of females had weight less than the weight of the reference women (50 Kg).
3/29/2020 8:53:11 PM +00:00
The present case reports the successful management of dystocia in nondescript ewe due to conjoined twin monster foetus. A full term pregnant ewe in its second parity was brought to the veterinary dispensary Ayyanaroothu, Tutucorin with a history of abdominal straining and not able to deliver the young one. Per vaginal examination revealed presence of a foetus in anterior presentation with left shoulder flexion. Shoulder flexion was corrected and a dead monocephalic conjoined twin foetus was relieved by gentle traction. The ewe was treated with broad spectrum antibiotic, anti inflammatory and ecbolic drugs. The ewe recovered uneventfully.
3/29/2020 7:26:01 PM +00:00